"DIRECTED" WOMEN'S MOVEMENTS IN INDONESIA: SOCIAL AND POLITICAL AGENCY FROM WITHIN

in Hawwa
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Abstract

This paper examines the extent to which women as the agents of change liberate themselves from the shackled cultural, social, and religious apparatus and empower themselves within the "directed" women's movements in Indonesia. I argue that while many women's movements prior to the 1980s were either established as auxiliaries to the parent's organization or directed by the state and operated under male authority with top-down managements, they have attempted to improve women's lives, especially in the area of consciousness raising, social welfare, public participation, marriage law, and education. They have also continued to reaffirm their agendas in order to empower women's roles in both private and public spheres.

"DIRECTED" WOMEN'S MOVEMENTS IN INDONESIA: SOCIAL AND POLITICAL AGENCY FROM WITHIN

in Hawwa

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