“Spheres of Influence” in the Epistle to the Galatians

in Horizons in Biblical Theology
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Abstract

Paul’s discussion of the Law and Christ in Galatians is framed in spherical language. This is seen in his use of three key prepositions (ἐν, ἐκ, and ὑπο). Paul’s chief contrast is between one operating within the Law or within Christ as their basic realm of belonging. Those who are tempted to return to the sphere of the Law as their fundamental relation to God are at risk of transferring out of the realm of Christ, which for Paul is the only place in which favor with God is found.

“Spheres of Influence” in the Epistle to the Galatians

in Horizons in Biblical Theology

Sections

References

BellevilleLinda L. “ ‘Under Law’: Structural Analysis and The Pauline Concept of Law in Galatians 3:21-4:11.” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 1986 26 53 78

BruceF.F. The Epistle to the Galatians 1988 Grand Rapids, MI William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. The New International Greek Testament Commentary

ColeR. Alan Galatians 1989 Grand Rapids, MI William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. The Tyndale New Testament Commentary Series

CosgroveCharles H. “Justification in Paul: A Linguistic and Theological Reflection.” Journal of Biblical Literature 1987 106 653 670

DunnJames D. G. The New Perspective on Paul 2005 Grand Rapids, MI William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.

DunnJames D. G. The Theology of Paul the Apostle 1998 Grand Rapids, MI William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.

GarlingtonDon “Paul’s “Partisan ἐκ” and the Question of Justification in Galatians.” Journal of Biblical Literature 2008 3 567 589

GarlingtonDon “Role Reversal and Paul’s Use of Scripture in Galatians 3.10-13.” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 1997 65 85 121

GeorgeTimothy Galatians 2001 Nashville, TN Broadman& Holman Publishers The New American Commentary

HansenG. Walter Galatians 1994 Downers Grove, IL InterVarsity Press ivp New Testament Commentary

KittelGerhard KittelGerhardBromileyGeoffrey W.FriedrichGerhard “ἀκούω, ἀκοή, εἰσ-, ἐπ-, παρακούω, παρακοή, ὑπακούω, ὑπακοή, ὑπήκοος.” Theological Dictionary of the New Testament 1964 Vol. 1 Grand Rapids, MI William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 216 225

LambrechtJan “Critical Reflections on Paul’s Partisan ‘ἐκ’ as Recently Presented by Don Garlington.” Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 2009 85 1 135 141

LüdemannGerd BalzHorst RobertSchneiderGerhard “ἐκ.” Exegetical Workbook of the New Testament 1990 Vol. 1 Grand Rapids William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 403

MateraFrank Galatians 2007 Collegeville, MN Liturgical Press Sacra Pagina

NgewaSamuel Galatians 2009 Grand Rapids, MI Zondervan Africa Bible Commentary

PorterStanley E. Idioms of the Greek New Testament 2005 London, UK Continuum

SandersE. P. Paul and Palestinian Judaism 1977 Philadelphia, PA Fortress Press

SängerDieter BalzHorst RobertSchneiderGerhard “ὑπὸ.” Exegetical Workbook of the New Testament 1990 Vol. 1. Grand Rapids William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 401 402

SchreinerThomas R. Galatians 2010 Grand Rapids, MI Zondervan Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament

SchreinerThomas R. The Law and Its Fulfillment: A Pauline Theology of the Law 1993 Grand Rapids, MI Baker Books

StowersStanley K. ek pisteosand dia ths pisteos in Romans 3:30.” Journal of Biblical Literature 1989 108 4 665 674

TaraziPaul Nadim Galatians: A Commentary 1999 Yonkers, Paul Nadim NY St. Vladimir’s Seminary Press Orthodox Biblical Studies

TenneyMerrill C. Galatians: The Charter of Christian Liberty 1989 Grand Rapids, MI William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.

WedderburnA. J. M. “Some Observations on Paul’s Use of the Phrases ‘In Christ’ and ‘With Christ’.” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 1985 25 83 97

WilsonTodd A. “ ‘Under Law’ in Galatians: A Pauline Theological Abbreviation.” Journal of Theological Studies 2005 56 2 362 392

WitheringtonBenIII Grace in Galatia: A Commentary on Paul’s Letter to the Galatians 1998 New York, NY T& T Clark

YoungNorman H. Paidagogos: The Social Setting of a Pauline Metaphor.” Novum Testamentum 1987 29 130 176

3

Gerd Lüdemann“ἐκ,” in Exegetical Workbook of the New TestamentVol. 1 ed. Horst Robert Balz and Gerhard Schneider (Grand Rapids William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1990) 403. See also Murray J. Harris Prepositions and Theology in the Greek New Testament(Grand Rapids: Zondervan2012) 103.

5

Stanley E. PorterIdioms of the Greek New Testament (London, UK: Continuum2005) 156.

10

See also Ben Witherington IIIGrace in Galatia: A Commentary on Paul’s Letter to the Galatians (New York, NY: T& T Clark1998) 73.

13

Garlington“Paul’s “Partisan ἐκ”” 567.

20

WitheringtonGrace in Galatia172.

25

Thus Kittel can state“NT hearing as reception of the declared will of God always implies affirmation of this will as the willing of salvation and repentance by the man who believes and acts. There thus arises, as the crowning concept of the obedience which consists in faith and the faith which consists in obedience” (Gerhard Kittel, “ἀκούω, ἀκοή, εἰσ-, ἐπ-, παρακούω, παρακοή, ὑπακούω, ὑπακοή, ὑπήκοος,” Theological Dictionary of the New TestamentVol. 1 ed. Gerhard Kittel Geoffrey W. Bromiley and Gerhard Friedrich (Grand Rapids mi: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1964) 220). Garlington here suggests a possible connection with Paul’s “obedience of faith” in Rom. 2.16 (Garlington “Paul’s “Partisan ἐκ”” 580).

30

Garlington“Paul’s “Partisan ἐκ”” 581.

32

E.g. BruceGalatians162.

34

Don Garlington“Role Reversal and Paul’s Use of Scripture in Galatians 3.10-13,” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 65 (1997): 108.

41

See E. P. SandersPaul and Palestinian Judaism (Philadelphia, PA: Fortress Press1977) 12-23.

43

A. J. M. Wedderburn“Some Observations on Paul’s Use of the Phrases ‘In Christ’ and ‘With Christ’,” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 25 (1985): 90. Weddernburn argues that the phrase should frequently be seen in an instrumental sense but does not adequately consider the importance of Paul’s spherical speech patterns and his emphasis on transfer terminology.

54

For an excellent summary see BruceGalatians307.

55

See Todd A. Wilson“ ‘Under Law’ in Galatians: A Pauline Theological Abbreviation,” Journal of Theological Studies 56.2 (2005): 362-392.

56

Linda L. Belleville“ ‘Under Law’: Structural Analysis and The Pauline Concept of Law in Galatians 3:21-4:11,” Journal for the Study of the New Testament 26 (1986): 60.

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