The Fiction of Economic Coercion: Political Marxism and the Separation of Theory and History

In: Historical Materialism

Abstract

The theory of social-property relations, or political Marxism, has argued that in contradistinction with pre-capitalist forms of exploitation, capitalism is characterised by the separation of the economic and the political, which makes surplus appropriation under this system uniquely driven by economic coercion. In spite of political Marxism’s various strengths, this article argues that the paradigm puts forward an ahistorical and sanitised conception of capitalism typical of bourgeois economics, which is an outcome of its formal-abstractionist approach to the concept of the mode of production and the separation between theory and history that it operates. A more satisfactory solution to political Marxism’s inability to make sense of past and present forms of coercion and violence under capitalism can be found in Jairus Banaji’s emphasis on Marx’s historical – rather than formal – conception of the mode of production.

  • AlbrittonRobert ‘Did Agrarian Capitalism Exist?’ The Journal of Peasant Studies 1993 20 3 419 441

  • Amnesty International ‘Democratic Republic of Congo: “Our Brothers who Help Kill Us”: Economic Exploitation and Human Rights Abuses in the East’ 2003 March 31 available at: .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Amnesty International ‘Democratic Republic of Congo: Arming the East’ 2005 July 4 available at: .

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AndersonPerry Lineages of the Absolutist State 1974 London New Left Books

  • AraghiFarshad ‘Food Regimes and the Production of Value: Some Methodological Issues’ The Journal of Peasant Studies 2003 30 2 41 70

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AstonTrevor H.PhilpinC.H.E. The Brenner Debate: Agrarian Class Structure and Economic Development in Pre-Industrial Europe 1988 Cambridge Cambridge University Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BakanAbigail B. ‘Plantation Slavery and the Capitalist Mode of Production: An Analysis of the Development of the Jamaican Labour Force’ Studies in Political Economy 1987 22 73 99

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BalesKevin Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy 2004 Berkeley University of California Press

  • BalesKevin Understanding Global Slavery: A Reader 2005 Berkeley University of California Press

  • BalesKevinSoodalterRon The Slave Next Door: Human Trafficking and Slavery in America Today 2009 Berkeley University of California Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BanajiJairus ‘Introduction: Themes in Historical Materialism’ Banaji 2010h 2010a

  • BanajiJairus ‘Modes of Production in a Materialist Conception of History’ Banaji 2010h 2010b

  • BanajiJairus ‘The Fictions of Free Labour: Contract, Coercion, and So-Called Unfree Labour’ Banaji 2010h 2010c

  • BanajiJairus ‘Islam, the Mediterranean and the Rise of Capitalism’ Banaji 2010h 2010d

  • BanajiJairus ‘Capitalist Domination and the Small Peasantry: The Deccan Districts in the Late Nineteenth Century’ Banaji 2010h 2010e

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BanajiJairus ‘Trajectories of Accumulation or “Transitions” to Capitalism?’ Banaji 2010h 2010f

  • BanajiJairus ‘Modes of Production: A Synthesis’ Banaji 2010h 2010g

  • BanajiJairus Theory as History: Essays on Modes of Production and Exploitation 2010h Leiden Brill Historical Materialism Book Series

  • Bangkok Post ‘End this Abuse by Companies’ 2012 April 24 available at:

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BarkerColin ‘Some Reflections on Two Books by Ellen Wood’ Historical Materialism 1997 1 22 65

  • BaudMichel ‘Sugar and Unfree Labour: Reflections on Labour Control in the Dominican Republic, 1870–1935’ The Journal of Peasant Studies 1992 19 2 301 325

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BertramChristopher BidetKouvelakis ‘Analytical Marxism’ 2007 2007

  • BhandariRakesh ‘The Disguises of Wage-Labour: Juridical Illusions, Unfree Conditions and Novel Extensions’ Historical Materialism 2008 16 1 71 99

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BidetJacquesKouvelakisStathis Critical Companion to Contemporary Marxism 2007 Leiden Brill Historical Materialism Book Series

  • BlackburnRobin The Overthrow of Colonial Slavery, 1776–1848 1988 London Verso

  • BlackledgePaul ‘Political Marxism: Towards an Immanent Critique’ Studies in Marxism 2002/3 9 1 20

  • BlackledgePaul Reflections on the Marxist Theory of History 2006 Manchester Manchester University Press

  • BlackledgePaul BidetKouvelakis ‘Political Marxism’ 2007 2007

  • BlautJames Morris The Colonizer’s Model of the World: Geographical Diffusionism and Eurocentric History 1993 New York The Guilford Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BlautJames Morris ‘Robert Brenner: The Tunnel of Time’ Eight Eurocentric Historians 2000 New York The Guilford Press

  • BoisGuy AstonPhilpin ‘Against the Neo-Malthusian Orthodoxy’ 1988 1988

  • BoweJohn Nobodies: Modern American Slave Labor and the Dark Side of the New Global Economy 2007 New York Random House

  • BrassTom Towards a Comparative Political Economy of Unfree Labour: Case Studies and Debates 1999 London Frank Cass

  • BrassTom ‘Unfree Labour as Primitive Accumulation?’ Capital & Class 2010 35 1 23 38

  • BrassTomvan der LindenMarcel Free and Unfree Labour: The Debate Continues 1997 Berne Peter Lang

  • BrennerRobert P. ‘The Origins of Capitalist Development: A Critique of Neo-Smithian Marxism’ New Left Review 1977 I 104 25 92

  • BrennerRobert P. ‘Dobb on the Transition from Feudalism to Capitalism’ Cambridge Journal of Economics 1978 2 121 140

  • BrennerRobert P. Roemer ‘The Social Basis of Economic Development’ 1986 1986

  • BrennerRobert P. AstonPhilpin ‘Agrarian Class Structure and Economic Development in Pre-Industrial Europe’ 1988a 1988

  • BrennerRobert P. AstonPhilpin ‘The Agrarian Roots of European Capitalism’ 1988b 1988

  • BrennerRobert P. EatwellJohnMilgateMurrayNewmanPeter ‘Feudalism’ The New Palgrave: Marxian Economics 1990 Basingstoke Palgrave Macmillan

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • BrennerRobert P. ‘The Economics of Global Turbulence’ New Left Review 1998 I 229

  • BrennerRobert P. Merchants and Revolution: Commercial Change, Political Conflict, and London’s Overseas Traders, 1550–1653 2003 London Verso

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CallinicosAlex ‘The Limits of “Political Marxism” ’ New Left Review 1990 I 184 110 115

  • CarlingAlan H. Social Division 1991 London Verso

  • ChibberVivek ‘Capital Outbound’ New Left Review 2005 II 36 151 158

  • ClarkeSimon ‘Capitalist Competition and the Tendency to Overproduction: Comments on Brenner’s “Uneven Development and the Long Downturn” ’ Historical Materialism 1999 4 57 72

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ComninelGeorge C. Rethinking the French Revolution: Marxism and the Revisionist Challenge 1987 London Verso

  • DavidsonNeil ‘How Revolutionary Were the Bourgeois Revolutions?’ Historical Materialism 2005 13 3 3 33

  • De AngelisMassimo ‘Separating the Doing and the Deed: Capital and the Continuous Character of Enclosures’ Historical Materialism 2004 12 2 57 87

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DobbMaurice Studies in the Development of Capitalism 1963 London Routledge

  • DuchesneRicardo ‘Robert Brenner on Political Accumulation and the Transition to Capitalism’ Review of Radical Political Economics 2001 33 1 79 98

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DuchesneRicardo ‘On the Origins of Capitalism’ Rethinking Marxism 2002 14 3 129 137

  • DufourFrédérick GuillaumeRiouxSébastien ‘La sociologie historique de la théorie des relations sociales de propriété’ Actuel Marx 2008 43 126 139

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EstabrookBarry ‘The Price of Tomatoes: Keeping Slavery Alive in Florida’ Common Dreams 2009 March 2 available at:

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EstabrookBarry Tomatoland: How Modern Industrial Agriculture Destroyed our Most Alluring Fruit 2011 Kansas City Andrews McMeel Publishing

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • FineBenLapavitsasCostasMilonakisDimitris ‘Addressing the World Economy: Two Steps Back’ Capital & Class 1999 23 1 47 90

  • GenoveseEugene D. The Political Economy of Slavery: Studies in the Economy and Society of the Slave South 1967 New York Random House

  • HarmanChris ‘From Feudalism to Capitalism’ International Socialism 1989 II 45 35 87

  • HayDouglasLinebaughPeterRuleJohn G.ThompsonE.P.WinslowCal Albion’s Fatal Tree: Crime and Society in Eighteenth-Century England 1975 London Allen Lane

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HeineChristianTeschkeBenno ‘Sleeping Beauty and the Dialectical Awakening: On the Potential of Dialectic for International Relations’ Millennium – Journal of International Studies 1996 25 2 399 423

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HeineChristian ‘On Dialectic and International Relations: A Reply to Our Critics’ Millennium – Journal of International Studies 1997 26 2 455 470

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HeineChristian RupertSmith ‘The Dialectic of Globalisation: A Critique of Social Constructivism’ 2002 2002

  • Heinz RothKarl Brassvan der Linden ‘Unfree Labour in the Area under German Hegemony, 1930–1945: Some Historical and Methodological Questions’ 1997 1997

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HellerHenry The Birth of Capitalism: A 21st Century Perspective 2011 London Pluto Press

  • HopcroftRosemary L. ‘The Social Origins of Agrarian Change in Late Medieval England’ American Journal of Sociology 1994 99 6 1559 1595

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HoyleR.W. ‘Tenure and the Land Market in Early Modern England: Or a Late Contribution to the Brenner Debate’ Economic History Review 1990 43 1 1 20

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HristovJasmin Blood and Capital: The Paramilitarization of Colombia 2009 Athens, OH. Ohio University Press

  • ILO A Global Alliance Against Forced Labour 2005 International Labour Conference 93rd Session, Report I(B) Geneva ILO

  • ILO Global Employment Trends, January 2009 2009a Geneva ILO

  • ILO The Cost of Coercion 2009b International Labour Conference 98th Session, Report I(B) Geneva ILO

  • KatzClaudio J. ‘Karl Marx on the Transition from Feudalism to Capitalism’ Theory and Society 1993 22 363 389

  • KnafoSamuel ‘Political Marxism and Value Theory: Bridging the Gap between Theory and History’ Historical Materialism 2007 15 2 75 104

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LacherHannes Beyond Globalization: Capitalism, Territoriality and the International Relations of Modernity 2006 London Routledge

  • LachmannRichard ‘Feudal Elite Conflict and the Origins of English Capitalism’ Politics and Society 1985 14 3 349 378

  • LaclauErnesto ‘Imperialism in Latin America’ New Left Review 1971 I 67 19 38

  • LeBaronGenevieveAyersAlison J. ‘The Rise of a “New Slavery”? Understanding African Unfree Labour through Neoliberalism’ Third World Quarterly 2013 34 5 873 892

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LercheJens ‘A Global Alliance against Forced Labour? Unfree Labour, Neo-Liberal Globalization and the International Labour Organization’ Journal of Agrarian Change 2007 7 4 425 452

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LinebaughPeter The London Hanged: Crime and Civil Society in the Eighteenth Century 2003 First Edition London Verso

  • LinebaughPeterRedikerMarcus The Many-Headed Hydra: Sailors, Slaves, Commoners, and the Hidden History of the Revolutionary Atlantic 2000 Boston Beacon Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MarxKarl ‘Tables of Differential Rent and Comment’ Theories of Surplus Value 1968 [1863] Moscow Progress Publishers available at:

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MarxKarl ‘Letter from Marx to Pavel Vasilyevich Annenkov’ Marx Engels Collected Works 1975 [1846] Volume 38 New York International Publishers available at:

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MarxKarl FowkesBen Capital: A Critique of Political Economy 1990 [1867] Volume One Harmondsworth Penguin

  • MarxKarl FernbachDavid Capital: A Critique of Political Economy 1991 [1894] Volume Three Harmondsworth Penguin

  • MarxKarl NicolausMartin Grundrisse: Foundations of the Critique of Political Economy (Rough Draft) 1993 [1953] Harmondsworth Penguin

  • McMichaelPhilip ‘Slavery in Capitalism: The Rise and Demise of the U.S. Ante-bellum Cotton Culture’ Theory and Society 1991 20 3 321 349

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • McMichaelPhilip ‘The Global Crisis of Wage Labour’ Studies in Political Economy 1999 58 11 40

  • McNallyDavid ‘Language, Praxis and Dialectics: Reply to Collins’ Historical Materialism 2004 12 2 149 167

  • Meiksins WoodEllen Democracy against Capitalism: Renewing Historical Materialism 2000 [1995] Cambridge Cambridge University Press

  • Meiksins WoodEllen The Origin of Capitalism: A Longer View 2002a London Verso

  • Meiksins WoodEllen RupertSmith ‘Global Capital, National States’ 2002b 2002

  • Meiksins WoodEllen ‘The Question of Market Dependence’ Journal of Agrarian Change 2002c 2 1 50 87

  • Meiksins WoodEllen Empire of Capital 2005 [2003] London Verso

  • Meiksins WoodEllen ‘A Reply to Critics’ Historical Materialism 2007 15 3 143 70

  • Meiksins WoodEllen ‘Class, Race, and Capitalism’ How Does Race Relate to Class? A Debate 2009 available at:

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MiesMaria Patriarchy and Accumulation on a World Scale: Women in the International Division of Labour 1994 London Zed Books

  • MiévilleChina Between Equal Rights: A Marxist Theory of International Law 2004 Leiden Brill Historical Materialism Book Series

  • MilesRobert Capitalism and Unfree Labour: Anomaly or Necessity? 1987 London Tavistock Publications Ltd.

  • MintzSidney W. Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern History 1986 [1985] Harmondsworth Penguin

  • MooreJason Ecology and the Rise of Capitalism 2007 doctoral dissertation, Department of Geography, University of California, Berkeley

  • OffCarol Bitter Chocolate: Investigating the Dark Side of the World’s Most Seductive Sweet 2006 Toronto Random House Canada

  • OngAihwa ‘Biocartography: Maids, Neoslavery, and NGOs’ Neoliberalism as Exception: Mutations in Citizenship and Sovereignty 2006 Durham, NC. Duke University Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PanitchLeoLeysColin Socialist Register 2009: Violence Today – Actually Existing Barbarism 2008 London Merlin Press

  • PostCharles The American Road to Capitalism: Studies in Class-Structure, Economic Development, and Political Conflict, 1620–1877 2011 Leiden Brill Historical Materialism Book Series

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RedikerMarcus The Slave Ship: A Human History 2007 New York Viking

  • ReedAdolphJr. ‘Rejoinder’ How Does Race Relate to Class? A Debate 2009 available at:

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RobinsonWilliam I. ‘The Pitfalls of Realist Analysis of Global Capitalism: A Critique of Ellen Meiksins Wood’s Empire of Capital’ Historical Materialism 2007 15 3 71 93

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RoemerJohn Roemer ‘Introduction’ 1986 1986

  • RoemerJohn Analytical Marxism 1986 Cambridge Cambridge University Press

  • RogalyBen ‘Migrant Workers in the ILO’s “Global Alliance against Forced Labour” Report: A Critical Appraisal’ Third World Quarterly 2008 29 7 1431 1447

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RupertMarkSmithHazel Historical Materialism and Globalization 2002 London Routledge

  • RyanÓrla Chocolate Nations: Living and Dying for Cocoa in West Africa 2011 London Zed Books

  • SeccombeWally A Millennium of Family Change: Feudalism to Capitalism in Northwestern Europe 1995 London Verso

  • SkinnerE. Benjamin A Crime So Monstrous: Face-to-Face with Modern-Day Slavery 2008 New York Free Press

  • SkinnerE. Benjamin ‘The Fishing Industry’s Cruelest Catch’ Bloomberg Businessweek 2012 27 February–4 March: 71–6, available at:

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TeschkeBenno ‘Geopolitical Relations in the European Middle Ages: History and Theory’ International Organization 1998 52 2 325 358

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TeschkeBenno The Myth of 1648: Class, Geopolitics and the Making of Modern International Relations 2003 London Verso

  • TomichDale W. Through the Prism of Slavery: Labor, Capital, and World Economy 2004 Lanham, MD. Rowman & Littlefield

  • US Department of State Trafficking in Persons Report 2009 available at:

  • van der AnkerChristien The Political Economy of New Slavery 2004 Basingstoke Palgrave Macmillan

  • van der LindenMarcel Workers of the World: Essays toward a Global Labor History 2008 Leiden Brill

  • WrightEric OlinLevineAndrewSoberElliott Reconstructing Marxism: Essays on Explanation and the Theory of History 1992 London Verso

  • 1.

    Banaji 2010b, p. 54.

  • 2.

    Marx 1990, p. 875.

  • 3.

    Bales and Soodalter 2009, p. 3.

  • 4.

    Amnesty 2003 and 2005; ILO 2005, 2009a and 2009b; Bales 2004 and 2005; Bales and Soodalter 2009; Bangkok Post 2012; Bowe 2007; Estabrook 2009 and 2011; Off 2006; Ong 2006; Ryan 2011; Skinner 2008 and 2012; Panitch and Leys (eds.) 2008; US Department of State 2009, pp. 32–41; van der Anker 2004. For a powerful critique of the ‘new slavery’ literature, see LeBaron and Ayers 2013.

  • 5.

    ILO 2009a; US Department of State 2009, pp. 32–41.

  • 6.

    ILO 2009b, p. 11. For perceptive critiques of the ILO’s 2005 Report, see Lerche 2007; Rogaly 2008.

  • 12.

    Banaji 2010b, p. 53. The second meaning of the concept of mode of production is exposed in the third section.

  • 13.

    Brenner 1988a and 1988b.

  • 14.

    Brenner 1978, pp. 121–2.

  • 15.

    Brenner 1988a, pp. 11–12.

  • 16.

    Comninel 1987, pp. 133–78; Lacher 2006, p. 78.

  • 17.

    Tomich 2004, p. 45.

  • 18.

    Brenner 1986, pp. 26–7.

  • 19.

    Roemer 1986, pp. 1–2. For a presentation of analytical Marxism, see Bertram 2007.

  • 20.

    Lacher 2006, p. 39.

  • 21.

    Brenner 1977, p. 52.

  • 22.

    Brenner 1990, p. 182.

  • 23.

    Brenner 1986, p. 33.

  • 24.

    Meiksins Wood 2000, p. 29.

  • 25.

    Brenner 1988b, p. 228, n. 22; Meiksins Wood 2002b and 2005.

  • 26.

    Lacher 2006, pp. 37–8.

  • 27.

    Brenner 1977. See also Meiksins Wood 2002a, Chapter 4; Meiksins Wood 2002c.

  • 28.

    Brenner 1986, p. 23.

  • 30.

    Tomich 2004, p. 13.

  • 31.

    Post 2011; Meiksins Wood 2005.

  • 32.

    Brenner 2003, p. 715.

  • 33.

    Davidson 2005, p. 21; De Angelis 2004, p. 60; Robinson 2007, p. 73.

  • 34.

    Meiksins Wood 2000, pp. 54–5. For the same argument, see Anderson 1974, p. 423.

  • 35.

    Meiksins Wood 2000, pp. 57–8.

  • 36.

    Meiksins Wood 2007, p. 150.

  • 37.

    Meiksins Wood 2005, p. 104.

  • 38.

    Robinson 2007, p. 73.

  • 39.

    Meiksins Wood 2007, p. 150.

  • 40.

    Meiksins Wood 2005, p. 115.

  • 42.

    Chibber 2005, p. 155.

  • 43.

    Miéville 2004, p. 217.

  • 44.

    Meiksins Wood 2005, p. 24.

  • 45.

    Meiksins Wood 2005, pp. 22–5.

  • 46.

    Meiksins Wood 2000, p. 266. See also Meiksins Wood 2009. Charles Post (Post 2011, p. 277) seems to offer a much more nuanced approach to ‘the creation of a racially-exclusive suffrage, backed up by legal and extra-legal violence and terror’ in the US South. It remains unclear, however, how Post reconciles the resilience of such extra-economic coercion with the subsequent development of capitalist social-property relations in the South. In other words, it is hard to see how Post can uphold the sanitised realm of capital accumulation put forward by his theoretical allegiance to political Marxism’s specific conception of historical materialism, without also following Meiksins Wood into a functionalist argument about the continuous ‘use’ of extra-economic coercion in the post-Civil War period.

  • 47.

    Teschke 2003, p. 143. See also Post 2011, p. 255.

  • 48.

    Brass 1999, p. 176, n. 60. See also Heinz Roth 1997.

  • 49.

    Hristov 2009, p. xi.

  • 50.

    Meiksins Wood 2000, p. 266.

  • 51.

     McNally 2004, p. 150.

  • 53.

    Heine and Teschke 1996, 1997 and 2002; Teschke 1998 and 2003; Lacher 2006.

  • 54.

    McNally 2004, p. 151.

  • 55.

    Blackledge 2006, p. 29.

  • 56.

    Banaji 2010a, pp. 4, 5–6.

  • 57.

    Banaji 2010b, pp. 50–2; Banaji 2010g, pp. 349–50.

  • 58.

    Banaji 2010b, p. 54.

  • 59.

    Banaji 2010b, p. 59 (emphasis added).

  • 60.

    Marx 1993, p. 101.

  • 61.

     Bakan 1987, p. 81.

  • 62.

    Bakan 1987, p. 85.

  • 63.

    Banaji 2010c, p. 142. See also Marx 1990, p. 1064.

  • 64.

    Banaji 2010c, p. 144.

  • 65.

    McMichael 1991, pp. 324–5. See also Araghi 2003; McMichael 1999; Tomich 2004.

  • 66.

    Marx 1968.

  • 67.

    Marx 1990, p. 345.

  • 68.

    Banaji 2010c, p. 143.

  • 70.

    Marx 1990, p. 925.

  • 71.

     Banaji 2010a, p. 1.

  • 72.

    Post 2011, p. 2.

  • 73.

    Banaji 2010d, p. 257. For similar arguments on the necessity of a more integrated approach, see McMichael 1991 and 1999; Moore 2007; Tomich 2004.

  • 74.

    Banaji 2010d, 2010e and 2010f.

  • 75.

    Marx 1991, pp. 450–1 (my emphasis).

  • 76.

    Banaji 2010d, p. 275.

  • 77.

    Banaji 2010d, p. 276.

  • 78.

    Marx 1990, pp. 876, 915–16; Davidson 2005, p. 17, n. 26; Banaji 2010a, pp. 43–4; Banaji 2010d.

  • 79.

    Marx 1990, p. 519.

  • 80.

    Marx 1990, p. 724, n. 20.

  • 81.

     Marx 1990, p. 935 (emphasis added).

  • 82.

    Bhandari 2008, p. 96.

  • 83.

    Marx 1990, pp. 1063–4.

  • 84.

    Marx 1990, p. 875 (emphasis added).

  • 85.

    Marx 1990, p. 875 (emphasis added).

  • 86.

    Banaji 2010c.

  • 87.

    Marx 1990, p. 723. See also Marx 1990, pp. 415–16.

  • 88.

    Marx 1990, p. 719.

  • 89.

    Banaji 2010a, p. 15.

  • 90.

    Knafo 2007, p. 102.

  • 91.

    Bois 1988, p. 116.

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 655 626 21
Full Text Views 493 468 13
PDF Downloads 250 244 6