Axis of Evil or Access to Diesel?

Spaces of New Imperialism and the Iraq War

in Historical Materialism
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

This article examines how the Iraq War was a space in the ongoing geographical extension of global capitalism linked to us foreign policy. Was it simply the decision by a unitary, hegemonic actor in the inter-state system overriding concerns from other states? Was it an imperialist move to secure the ‘global oil spigot’? Alternatively, did the use of military force reflect the interests and emergence of a transnational state apparatus? We argue that the us imperium needs to be conceptualised as a specific form of state, within which and through which fractions of national and transnational capital operate. In so doing, the Iraq War is assessed as a moment in the extension of global capitalism in which the interests of a national fraction of capital within the us state form was dominant, thereby placing processes of class struggle and their relation to wider spaces of imperialism at the centre of analysis.

Axis of Evil or Access to Diesel?

Spaces of New Imperialism and the Iraq War

in Historical Materialism

Sections

References

AgnewJohn ‘Capitalism, Territory and “Marxist Geopolitics”’ Geopolitics 2011 16 1 230 233

AndersonPerry ‘American Foreign Policy and Its Thinkers’ New Left Review 2013 II 83 5 167

AnievasAlexander ‘Theories of a Global State: A Critique’ Historical Materialism 2008 16 2 190 206

AnievasAlexander Capital the State and War: Class Conflict and Geopolitics in the Thirty Years’ Crisis 1914–1945 2014 Ann Arbor University of Michigan Press

ArrighiGiovanni The Long Twentieth Century: Money Power and the Origins of Our Times 1994 London Verso

Association of American Universities ‘National Defense Education and Innovation Initiative: Meeting America’s Economic and Security Challenges in the 21st Century’ 2006 9 April 2009 available at: <https://www.aau.edu/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=6424>

bbc News ‘“Appeal for Peace” on us-French Trade’ 2003 May 1 14 April 2009 available at: <http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/2991995.stm>

Bechtel usaid Awards Bechtel National Iraq Infrastructure ii Contract’ 2004 January 6 27 December 2008 available at: <http://www.bechtel.com/newsroom/releases/2004/01/usaid-awardsiraq-infrastructure-2-contract/>

BielerAndreas The Struggle for a Social Europe: Trade Unions and emu in Times of Global Restructuring 2006 Manchester Manchester University Press

BielerAndreasBozkurtSümercanCrookMaxCruttendenPeter S.ErolErtanMortonAdam DavidTanselCemal BurakUzgörenElif ‘The Enduring Relevance of Rosa Luxemburg’s The Accumulation of Capital Journal of International Relations and Development 2014 doi: 10.1057/jird.2014.18.

BielerAndreasMortonAdam David ‘The Deficits of Discourse in ipe: Turning Base Metal into Gold?’ International Studies Quarterly 2008 52 1 103 28

BielerAndreasMortonAdam David ‘The Will-o’-the-Wisp of the Transnational State?’ Journal of Australian Political Economy 2013/14 72 23 51

BlackJeremy ‘Towards a Marxist Geopolitics’ Geopolitics 2011 16 1 234 5

BlockFred ‘Using Social Theory to Leap Over Historical Contingencies: A Comment on Robinson’ Theory and Society 2001 30 2 215 21

BromleySimon Rethinking Middle East Politics: State Formation and Development 1994 Cambridge Polity Press

BromleySimon ‘The United States and the Control of World Oil’ Government and Opposition 2005 40 2 225 55

BromleySimon ‘Blood for Oil?’ New Political Economy 2006 11 3 419 34

BrzezinskiZbigniew ‘Hegemonic Quicksand’ The National Interest 2003/4 74 5 16

BukharinNikolai Imperialism and World Economy 1929 New York International Publishers [1917]

BurkemanOliver ‘Bechtel Wins Contract Prize’ The Guardian 2003 April 18 14 April 2009 available at: <http://www.theguardian.com/world/2003/apr/18/iraq.oliverburkeman1?INTCMP=SRCH>

CafrunyAlan and Timothy Lehmann ‘Over the Horizon?: The United States and Iraq’ New Left Review 2012 II 73 5 16

CallinicosAlex ‘Imperialism and Global Political Economy’ International Socialism 2005 II 108 available at: <http://www.isj.org.uk/www.isj.org.uk/index37bf.html?id=140>

CallinicosAlex Imperialism and Global Political Economy 2009 Cambridge Polity Press

CallinicosAlex AnievasAlexander ‘Does Capitalism Need the State System?’ Marxism and World Politics: Contesting Global Capitalism 2010 London Routledge

ChandrasekaranRajiv Imperial Life in the Emerald City: Inside Baghdad’s Green Zone 2006 London Bloomsbury

ChomskyNoam Hegemony or Survival: America’s Quest for Global Dominance 2003 Harmondsworth Penguin Books

ChomskyNoam Failed States: The Abuse of Power and the Assault on Democracy 2007 Harmondsworth Penguin Books

ColásAlejandroPozoGonzalo ‘The Value of Territory: Towards a Marxist Geopolitics’ Geopolitics 2011 16 1 211 20

CoxRobert W. ‘Social Forces, States and World Orders: Beyond International Relations Theory’ Millennium: Journal of International Studies 1981 10 2 126 55

de BrunhoffSusanne The State Capital and Economic Policy 1978 London Pluto Press

de GraaffNanávan ApeldoornBastiaan ‘Varieties of us post-Cold War Imperialism: Anatomy of a Failed Hegemonic Project and the Future of us Geopolitics’ Critical Sociology 2011 37 4 403 27

FlibbertAndrew ‘The Road to Baghdad: Ideas and Intellectuals in Explanations of the Iraq War’ Security Studies 2006 15 2 310 52

GallagherJohnRobinsonRonald ‘The Imperialism of Free Trade’ The Economic History Review 1953 II 6 1 15 1

GereffiGaryHumphreyJohnSturgeonTimothy ‘The Governance of Global Value Chains’ Review of International Political Economy 2005 12 1 78 104

GirouxHenry A. The University in Chains: Confronting the Military-Industrial-Academic Complex 2007 Boulder, CO Paradigm Publishers

GramsciAntonio HoareQuintinNowell-SmithGeoffrey Selections from the Prison Notebooks 1971 London Lawrence and Wishart

GuzziniStefano ‘Marxist Geopolitics: Still a Missed Rendezvous?’ Geopolitics 2011 16 1 226 9

HalperinSandra ‘The Political Economy of Anglo-American War: The Case of Iraq’ International Politics 2011 48 2/3 207 28

HarrisJerry AppelbaumRichard P.RobinsonWilliam I. ‘The Military-Industrial Complex in Transnational Class Theory’ Critical Globalization Studies 2005 London Routledge

HarrisJerry The Dialectics of Globalization: Economic and Political Conflict in a Transnational World 2008a Newcastle-upon-Tyne Cambridge Scholars Publishing

HarrisJerry us Imperialism after Iraq’ Race & Class 2008b 50 1 37 58

Hart-LandsbergMartin Capitalist Globalization: Consequences Resistance and Alternatives 2013 New York Monthly Review Press

HarveyDavid GregoryDerekUrryJohn ‘The Geopolitics of Capitalism’ Social Relations and Spatial Structures 1985 Basingstoke Macmillan

HarveyDavid Justice Nature and the Geography of Difference 1996 Oxford Wiley-Blackwell

HarveyDavid ‘The Geography of Capitalist Accumulation: A Reconstruction of the Marxian Theory’ Spaces of Capital: Towards a Critical Geography 2001 Edinburgh Edinburgh University Press [1975]

HarveyDavid The New Imperialism 2003 Oxford Clarendon Press

HarveyDavid The Limits to Capital 2006 New Edition, London Verso

HerringEricRangwalaGlen Iraq in Fragments: The Occupation and Its Legacy 2006 London Hurst and Company

HirstPaulThompsonGrahame Globalization in Question: The International Economy and the Possibilities of Governance 1999 Second Edition Cambridge Polity Press

HollowayJohnPicciottoSol ‘Capital, Crisis and the State’ Capital & Class 1977 1 2 76 101

Hossein-ZadehIsmael The Political Economy of us Militarism 2006 Basingstoke Palgrave

KautskyKarl ‘Ultra-imperialism’ New Left Review 1970 I 59 41 6 [1914]

KielyRay The New Political Economy of Development: Globalization Imperialism Hegemony 2007 Basingstoke Palgrave

KielyRay Rethinking Imperialism 2010 Basingstoke Palgrave

KlareMichael T. Blood and Oil: The Dangers and Consequences of America’s Growing Dependency on Imported Petroleum 2004 Harmondsworth Penguin Books

KleinNaomi The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism 2007 Harmondsworth Penguin Books

KristolWilliamKaganRobert ‘Toward a Neo-Reaganite Foreign Policy’ Foreign Affairs 1996 75 4 18 32

LacherHannes Beyond Globalization: Capitalism Territoriality and the International Relations of Modernity 2006 London Routledge

LeninVladimir Ilyich Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism: A Popular Outline Collected Works 1964 Volume 22 London Lawrence and Wishart [1916]

LuxemburgRosa DeCarloTeresa The Industrial Development of Poland 1977 New York Campaigner Publishers [1898]

LuxemburgRosa SchwarzschildAgnes The Accumulation of Capital 2003 London Routledge [1913]

MargessonRhodaTarnoffCurt ‘Iraq: Recent Developments in Humanitarian and Reconstruction Assistance’ 2003 April 1 14 April 2009 available at: <http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/19705.pdf>

MarxKarl MooreSamuelAvelingEdward Capital Marx/Engels Collected Works 1996 Volume I London Lawrence and Wishart [1887] Volume 35

McMichaelPhilip ‘Revisiting the Question of the Transnational State: A Comment on William Robinson’s “Social Theory and Globalization”’ Theory and Society 2001 30 2 201 10

MortonAdam David Unravelling Gramsci: Hegemony and Passive Revolution in the Global Political Economy 2007 London Pluto Press

MortonAdam David Revolution and State in Modern Mexico: The Political Economy of Uneven Development 2013 Updated Edition Lanham, MD Rowman and Littlefield

National Intelligence Council ‘Mapping the Global Future: Report of the National Intelligence Council’s 2020 Project’ 2004 4 January 2009 available at: <http://www.dni.gov/files/documents/Global%20Trends_Mapping%20the%20Global%20Future%202020%20Project.pdf>

National Security Council 2002 ‘The National Security Strategy of the United States of America’ 4 January 2009 available at: <http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/nss/2002/nss.pdf>

NitzanJonathanBichlerShimshon The Global Political Economy of Israel 2002 London Pluto Press

NitzanJonathanBichlerShimshon ‘Dominant Capital and the New Wars’ Journal of World-Systems Research 2004 10 2 255 327

OllmanBertell Alienation: Marx’s Conception of Man in Capitalist Society 1976 Second Edition Cambridge Cambridge University Press

OllmanBertell Dance of the Dialectic: Steps in Marx’s Method 2003 Chicago University of Illinois Press

Ó TuathailGearóidAgnewJohn ‘Geopolitics and Discourse: Practical Geopolitical Reasoning in American Foreign Policy’ Political Geography 1992 11 2 190 204

Ó TuathailGearóidAgnewJohnDalbySimonRoutledgePaul The Geopolitics Reader 1998 First Edition London Routledge

PanitchLeo ‘The New Imperial State’ New Left Review 2000 II 2 5 20

PanitchLeoGindinSam PanitchLeoLeysColin ‘Global Capitalism and American Empire’ Socialist Register 2004: The New Imperial Challenge 2003 London Merlin Press

PanitchLeoGindinSam PanitchLeoLeysColin ‘Finance and American Empire’ Socialist Register 2005: The Empire Reloaded 2005a London Merlin Press

PanitchLeoGindinSam ‘Superintending Global Capital’ New Left Review 2005b II 35 101 23

PanitchLeoGindinSam The Making of Global Capitalism: The Political Economy of American Empire 2012 London Verso

PaulDarel E. ‘The Siren Song of Geopolitics: Towards a Gramscian Account of the Iraq War’ Millennium: Journal of International Studies 2007 36 1 51 76

PolitiDanielVerlöyAndré ‘Advisors of Influence: Nine Members of the Defense Policy Board Have Ties to Defense Contractors’ 2003 March 28 14 April 2009 available at:

Pozo MartinGonzalo ‘A Tougher Gordian Knot: Globalisation, Imperialism and the Problem of the State’ Cambridge Review of International Affairs 2006 19 2 223 42

Project for the New American Century ‘About pnac 1997a 14 April 2009 available at: <http://www.newamericancentury.org/aboutpnac.htm>

Project for the New American Century ‘Statement of Principles’ 1997b 14 April 2009 available at:

RobinsonWilliam I. Transnational Conflicts: Central America Social Change and Globalization 2003 London Verso

RobinsonWilliam I. A Theory of Global Capitalism: Production Class and State in a Transnational World 2004 Baltimore Johns Hopkins University Press

RobinsonWilliam I. ‘The Pitfalls of Realist Analysis of Global Capitalism: A Critique of Ellen Meiksins Wood’s Empire of Capital Historical Materialism 2007 15 3 71 93

RobinsonWilliam I. Latin America and Global Capitalism: A Critical Globalization Perspective 2008 Baltimore Johns Hopkins University Press

RobinsonWilliam I. ‘Globalization and the Sociology of Immanuel Wallerstein: A Critical Appraisal’ International Sociology 2011 26 6 723 45

RobinsonWilliam I.HarrisJerry ‘Towards a Global Ruling Class? Globalization and the Transnational Capitalist Class’ Science & Society 2000 64 1 11 54

RosenbergJustin ‘Why Is There No International Historical Sociology?’ European Journal of International Relations 2006 12 3 307 40

SklairLeslie The Transnational Capitalist Class 2001 Oxford Wiley

SkocpolTheda States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France Russia and China 1979 Cambridge Cambridge University Press

StokesDoug ‘The Heart of Empire? Theorising us Empire in an Era of Transnational Capitalism’ Third World Quarterly 2005 26 2 217 36

StokesDougRaphaelSam Global Energy Security and American Hegemony 2010 Baltimore Johns Hopkins University Press

StrunaJason Global Capitalism and Transnational Class Formation 2015 London Routledge

TeschkeBenno The Myth of 1648: Class Geopolitics and the Making of Modern International Relations 2003 London Verso

TrotskyLeon The History of the Russian Revolution 1936 New York Pathfinder Press

TrotskyLeon ‘Results and Prospects’ The Permanent Revolution Results and Prospects 2007 London Socialist Resistance [1906]

TsaiFrederick ‘The False Binary Choice between Multilateralism and Unilateralism’ SAIS Review of International Affairs 2008 28 2 45 8

un World Investment Report 2008: Transnational Corporations and the Infrastructure Challenge 2008 New York United Nations available at: <http://unctad.org/en/Docs/wir2008_en.pdf>

usaid ‘Acquisition and Assistance Activities’ 2007 29 October 2008 available at: <http://www.usaid.gov/iraq/activities.html>

Van ApeldoornBastiaande GraaffNaná ‘Corporate Elite Networks and us post-Cold War Grand Strategy from Clinton to Obama’ European Journal of International Relations 2014 20 1 29 55

Van der PijlKees ‘Arab Revolts and Nation-State Crisis’ New Left Review 2011 II 70 27 49

Van NattaDonJr. ‘High Payments to Halliburton for Fuel in Iraq’ The New York Times 2003 December 10 29 October 2008 available at: <http://www.nytimes.com/2003/12/10/international/middleeast/10GAS.html>

WeissLinda The Myth of the Powerless State: Governing the Economy in a Global Era 1998 Cambridge Polity

WoodEllen Meiksins The Pristine Culture of Capitalism: An Historical Essay on Old Regimes and Modern States 1991 London Verso

WoodEllen Meiksins ‘Unhappy Families: Global Capitalism in a World of Nation-States’ Monthly Review 1999 51 3 1 12

WoodEllen Meiksins RupertMarkSmithHazel ‘Global Capital, National States’ Historical Materialism and Globalisation: Essays on Continuity and Change 2002 London Routledge

WoodwardBob Plan of Attack 2004 New York Pocket Books

1

Colás and Pozo 2011p. 219.

2

See Agnew 2011; Black 2011; Guzzini 2011.

3

van der Pijl 2011.

4

Cox 1981p. 142.

5

Lenin 1964p. 259.

6

Lenin 1964p. 83.

7

Lenin 1964pp. 275–6.

8

Bukharin 1929p. 115.

9

Bukharin 1929p. 54.

10

Bukharin 1929p. 58.

11

Bukharin 1929p. 149.

12

Bukharin 1929p. 158.

13

Callinicos 2009p. 72.

14

Callinicos 2009p. 74. Different versions of a ‘two logics’ account of the new imperialism can be found in Harvey 1985 and Harvey 2003 as well as Arrighi 1994.

15

Callinicos 2009p. 83.

16

Callinicos 2010p. 21. Unsurprisingly considering the emphasis on a ‘realist moment’ Callinicos is charged with providing ‘a Marxist explanation that often reads like an excellent realist one’ (Pozo Martin 2006 p. 236 n. 12).

17

Callinicos 2005p. 2.

18

Callinicos 2005p. 7; Harvey 2003 p. 25.

19

Halperin 2011.

20

Stokes 2005pp. 218 230; and Stokes and Raphael 2010 pp. 35–8.

22

Ollman 2003p. 80.

23

Ollman 1976p. 47; see also Bieler and Morton 2008.

24

Ollman 2003p. 5.

25

Bromley 1994p. 34.

26

Bromley 1994pp. 96–100.

27

Bromley 2006p. 429.

28

Bromley 2006p. 420; see also Bromley 2005 p. 254.

29

Kautsky 1970pp. 44 46.

30

Kautsky 1970p. 46.

31

Lenin 1964p. 272.

32

Bukharin 1929pp. 137–8.

33

Panitch and Gindin 2012pp. 4 10–12.

34

Kiely 2010p. 141.

35

Panitch and Gindin 2005ap. 61; see also Kiely 2010 p. 146.

36

Panitch and Gindin 2012pp. 179 214.

37

Panitch and Gindin 2005ap. 53.

38

Kiely 2007pp. 30–9 borrows this term from Gallagher and Robinson 1953.

39

Kiely 2010p. 163.

40

Kiely 2010p. 233.

41

Kiely 2010p. 234.

42

For example see Panitch and Gindin 2005ap. 47; Kiely 2010 pp. 242 245 246–7.

43

Panitch and Gindin 2012pp. 7–12.

44

Panitch and Gindin 2005ap. 53.

45

See de Brunhoff 1978pp. 113–22. As Panitch and Gindin state ‘the asymmetries of empire need to be factored into the interpenetration and evaluation of exchange rates trade accounts fiscal deficits capital flows international debt’ (Panitch and Gindin 2005b p. 115). The reduction of American empire to finance and its informal characteristics can also be witnessed in Panitch 2000 and Panitch and Gindin 2003.

46

Bieler 2006p. 50.

49

Robinson 2008p. 30.

50

Hirst and Thompson 1999. For the expression of similar criticisms of fdi as an indicator of transnationalisation see Anievas 2008 pp. 196–7 and Weiss 1998; for a response to Hirst and Thompson as well as Weiss see Bieler 2006 pp. 50–4.

51

Gereffi Humphrey and Sturgeon 2005.

52

Hart-Landsberg 2013p. 20.

55

Skocpol 1979p. 19.

56

Lacher 2006; Teschke 2003.

57

Wood 1991p. 26.

58

Wood 2002p. 19.

59

Marx 1996p. 588.

60

Harvey 1985p. 132.

61

Trotsky 1936pp. 25–37.

62

Trotsky 2007p. 27.

63

Rosenberg 2006p. 319.

64

Trotsky 1936p. 28.

65

Wood 1999pp. 7–8.

66

Luxemburg 2003p. 323.

67

Luxemburg 2003p. 401.

68

Luxemburg 2003p. 338.

69

Luxemburg 1977pp. 120–1.

71

Luxemburg 2003p. 108.

72

Luxemburg 2003pp. 346–7.

73

Luxemburg 2003p. 419.

74

Luxemburg 2003p. 367.

75

Luxemburg 2003p. 426.

77

Harvey 1996p. 269.

78

Sklair 2001; Robinson and Harris 2000. For recent scholarship on the tcc including contributions by Sklair and Robinson see Struna (ed.) 2015.

79

Robinson 2004p. 21.

80

Robinson 2003pp. 19–20; Robinson 2008 pp. 6–7.

81

Robinson 2011p. 742.

82

Robinson 2004p. 109.

83

Robinson 2007p. 89.

84

Robinson 2007p. 92.

85

Robinson 2004p. 61.

87

Robinson 2003p. 62.

88

Bieler and Morton 2013/14 pp. 34–5; Morton 2007 p. 148.

89

Anievas 2008p. 197; see also pp. 199–203.

91

Harris 2008ap. 55.

92

Harris 2005p. 145.

93

See also Bieler and Morton 2013/14 pp. 31–7; Morton 2013 pp. 104–5.

94

Nitzan and Bichler 2002pp. 208–12; Hossein-Zadeh 2006 p. 4.

95

Harris 2005p. 142.

96

Hossein-Zadeh 2006p. 4.

97

Harris 2005p. 142.

98

Tsai 2008p. 48. See also Anievas 2014 pp. 114–15 on how unilateralism-multilateralism are always-already present moments or internally related aspects of the extension of capitalist accumulation including the systematic use or threat of force and violence through formal and informal empire.

101

Harris 2008bp. 39

102

Kristol and Kagan 1996p. 20.

103

Project for the New American Century 1997a.

104

Project for the New American Century 1997b.

105

Chomsky 2003p. 3.

106

National Security Council 2002.

107

Herring and Rangwala 2006pp. 8–9.

109

Paul 2007p. 69.

110

Giroux 2007p. 15.

111

Giroux 2007pp. 18–19.

112

Association of American Universities 2006.

113

Harris 2005pp. 145–51.

114

Paul 2007p. 65.

115

Chomsky 2007p. 38.

116

Klare 2004p. 62.

117

National Intelligence Council 2004pp. 59 62.

118

Brzezinski 2003/4 p. 8.

119

Cafruny and Lehmann 2012p. 16.

120

Klein 2007pp. 311 313.

121

Woodward 2004p. 163.

122

Klein 2007p. 320.

123

Politi and Verlöy 2003.

124

Klein 2007p. 320.

125

Klein 2007p. 317.

126

Klein 2007p. 319.

127

Harris 2005pp. 145–6.

128

Van Apeldoorn and de Graaff 2014pp. 45–6.

129

Burkeman 2003. See also Anievas 2008 p. 203.

130

Flibbert 2006p. 321.

131

Nitzan and Bichler 2004p. 257.

132

Nitzan and Bichler 2004p. 258.

133

Margesson and Tarnoff 2003.

135

Chandrasekaran 2006p. 12.

136

Van Natta 2003.

137

Bechtel 2004.

139

Panitch and Gindin 2012p. 7.

140

Harvey 2001p. 274.

141

Harvey 2006p. 431.

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 56 56 22
Full Text Views 98 98 59
PDF Downloads 18 18 5
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0