From the Return to Labriola to the Anti-Croce

Philosophy, Praxis and Human Nature in Gramsci’s Prison Notebooks

in Historical Materialism
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Gramsci belonged in a tradition which stemmed from Antonio Labriola, not from Croce and idealist philosophy. This tradition saw Marxism as a philosophy of praxis, a new and original philosophy distinct from both idealism and materialism. Gramsci took his lead from Labriola but also further expanded upon the latter’s approach by seeking the fundamental concepts of the new philosophy in the Theses on Feuerbach. In particular, Gramsci recovered both the concept of praxis and the concept of human nature from the Theses. With the concept of human nature, he expanded even upon Marx’s formulation, by including the individual within it in a way that lays the foundation for modern social sciences based on the notion of the individual, which was, in Gramsci’s case, a socially-rich notion.

From the Return to Labriola to the Anti-Croce

Philosophy, Praxis and Human Nature in Gramsci’s Prison Notebooks

in Historical Materialism

Sections

References

BellamyRichard ‘Gramsci, Croce and the Italian Political Tradition’ History of Political Thought 1990 11 2 313 337

BellamyRichard ‘A Crocean Critique of Gramsci on Historicism, Hegemony and Intellectuals’ Journal of Modern Italian Studies 2001 6 2 209 229

BergamiGiancarlo Il giovane Gramsci e il marxismo: 1911–1918 1977 Milan Feltrinelli

BidussaDavid SbarberiFranco ‘La Questione della Tradizione. Storia o Ideologia? Il Marxismo Italiano degli Anni ’20 e il Ritorno ad Antonio Labriola’ Antonio Labriola nella Cultura Europea dell’Ottocento 1988 Manduria/Bari/Rome Piero Lacaita

BidussaDavid GiasiFrancesco ‘La Cultura Politica degli Ordinovisti’ Gramsci nel Suo Tempo 2008 Rome Carocci

BowlesSamuelGintisHerbert GoodinRobert E.TillyCharles ‘Social Preferences, Homo Oeconomicus and Zoon Politikon The Oxford Handbook of Work of Contextual Political Analysis 2006 Oxford Oxford University Press

BravoGian Mario Socialismo e marxismo in Italia: dalle origini a Labriola 2007 Rome Viella

BurgioAlberto ‘Un’ Eredità Misconosciuta. Ancora sul Rapporto Gramsci-Labriola’ Il Cannocchiale 2012 3 11 55

CasertaErnesto G. ‘Croce and Marxism’ Journal of the History of Ideas 1983 44 1 141 149

CasertaErnesto G. ‘Croce and Gramsci: Some Reflections on their Relationship’ Quaderni d’Italianistica 1984 5 2 204 216

CatoneAndrea GiacominiRuggeroLosurdoDomenicoMartelliMichele ‘Gramsci, la Tradizione Socialista e il Problema della Mancata Ricezione del Socialismo’ Gramsci e l’Italia. Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Urbino. 24–25 gennaio 1992 1994 Naples La Città del Sole

CohenGerald A. Karl Marx’s Theory of History 2000 Expanded Edition Princeton Princeton University Press

CospitoGiuseppe ‘Verso l’Edizione Critica e Integrale dei “Quaderni del Carcere”’ Studi Storici 2011 52 4 881 904

CroceBenedetto FudemotoHiroko Breviary of Aesthetics: Four Lectures 2007 Toronto University of Toronto Press

DainottoRoberto M. FranceseJoseph ‘Gramsci and Labriola: Philology, Philosophy of Praxis’ Perspectives on Gramsci: Politics Culture and Social Theory 2009 Abingdon Routledge

DavidsonAlastair Antonio Gramsci: Towards an Intellectual Biography 1977 Atlantic Highlands, NJ. Humanities Press

FattoriniEmma ‘Religione, morale e concezione dell’uomo’ Critica Marxista 1987 25 2/3 67 97

FrancioniGianni L’officina gramsciana. Ipotesi sulla struttura dei ‘Quaderni dal carcere’ 1984 Naples Bibliopolis

FrancioniGianni ‘Gramsci tra Croce e Bukharin: sulla Struttura dei Quaderni 10 e 11’ Critica Marxista 1987 25 6 19 45

FrancioniGianni ‘L’Impaginazione dei “Quaderni” e le Note su Labriola’ Belfagor 1992 47 5 607 615

FrosiniFabio Gramsci e la Filosofia: Saggio sui Quaderni del Carcere 2003 Rome Carocci

FrosiniFabio FrosiniFabioLiguoriGuido ‘Filosofia della praxis’ Le Parole di Gramsci: per un Lessico dei Quaderni del Carcere 2004 Rome Carocci

FrosiniFabio GiasiFrancesco ‘Il Neoidealismo Italiano e l’Elaborazione della Filosofia della Praxis’ Gramsci nel Suo Tempo 2008 Rome Carocci

FrosiniFabio ‘Note sul programma di lavoro sugli “intellettuali italiani” alla luce della nuova edizione critica’ Studi Storici 2011 52 4 905 924

GarinEugenio Tra due secoli: socialismo e filosofia in Italia dopo l’Unità 1983 Bari De Donato

GarinEugenio AlbaraniGiuliano ‘La formazione di Gramsci e Croce’ Gramsci e la Storia d’Italia 2008 Milan Unicopli

GramsciAntonio La Questione Meridionale 1974 Rome Editori Riuniti

GramsciAntonio Quaderni del carcere 1977 Volume 1 Second Edition Turin Einaudi Editore

GramsciAntonio ButtigiegJoseph Prison Notebooks 1996 Volume 2 New York Columbia University Press

GramsciAntonio ButtigiegJoseph Prison Notebooks 2007 Volume 3 New York Columbia University Press

HaugWolfgang Fritz ‘Gramsci’s “Philosophy of Praxis”’ Socialism and Democracy 2000 14 1 1 19

HaugWolfgang ‘From Marx to Gramsci, from Gramsci to Marx: Historical Materialism and the Philosophy of Praxis’ Rethinking Marxism 2001 13 1 69 82

HillDebbie J. ‘A Brief Commentary on the Hegelian-Marxist Origins of Gramsci’s “Philosophy of Praxis”’ Educational Philosophy and Theory 2009 41 6 605 621

IzzoFrancesca GiasiFrancesco ‘I Marx di Gramsci’ Gramsci nel Suo Tempo 2008 Rome Carocci

JacobittiEdmund E. ‘Labriola, Croce, and Italian Marxism (1895–1910)’ Journal of the History of Ideas 1975 36 2 297 318

JacobittiEdmund E. ‘Hegemony before Gramsci: The Case of Benedetto Croce’ Journal of Modern History 1980 52 66 84

JacobittiEdmund E. Revolutionary Humanism and Historicism in Modern Italy 1981 New Haven Yale University Press

KanoussiDora CospitoGiuseppe ‘Alcune considerazioni sui “quaderni filosofici” di Gramsci’ Gramsci tra filologia e storiografia 2010 Naples Bibliopolis

KołakowskiLeszek Main Currents of Marxism: The Golden Age 1981 Volume 2 Oxford Oxford University Press

LabriolaAntonio Scritti filosofi e politici 1973 Turin Einaudi

LiguoriGuido Gramsci conteso: storia di un dibattito 1922–1996 1996 Rome Editori Riuniti

LosurdoDomenico Antonio Gramsci dal liberalismo al “comunismo critico” 1997 Rome Gamberetti

MastroianniGiovanni ‘Per una Rilettura dei Quaderni del Carcere di Antonio Gramsci’ Belfagor 1991 46 5 485 509

PaggiLeonardo Antonio Gramsci e il moderno principe 1970 Rome Editori Riuniti

PaggiLeonardo Le Strategie del Potere in Gramsci 1984 Rome Editori Riuniti

RaponeLeonardo Cinque anni che paiono secoli: Antonio Gramsci dal socialismo al comunismo (1914–1919) 2011 Rome Carocci

SchechterDarrow ‘Gramsci, Gentile and the Theory of the Ethical State in Italy, 1918–1920’ Italian Quarterly 1990 31 119/20 43 56

SchirruGiancarlo CospitoGiuseppe ‘Filosofia del Linguaggio, Psicologia dei Popoli e Marxismo. Un Dialogo tra Gramsci e Labriola nel Quaderno 11’ Gramsci tra filologia e storiografia 2010 Naples Bibliopolis

ThomasPeter D. The Gramscian Moment: Philosophy Hegemony and Marxism Historical Materialism 2009 Leiden Brill Book Series

TuozzoloClaudio Marx Possibile: Benedetto Croce Teorico Marxista 1896–1897 2008 Milan Franco Angeli

UrbinatiNadia ‘From the Periphery of Modernity: Antonio Gramsci’s Theory of Subordination and Hegemony’ Political Theory 1998 26 3 370 391

VaccaGiuseppe D’OrsiAngelo ‘Dall’ “egemonia del proletariato” all’ “egemonia civile”. Il concetto di egemonia negli scritti di Gramsci fra il 1926 e il 1935’ Egemonie 2008 Naples Libreria Dante & Descartes

ZangheriRenato BarattaGiorgioLiguoriGuido ‘Dal materialismo storico alla filosofia della prassi’ Gramsci da un secolo all’altro 1999 Rome Editori Riuniti

1

Burgio 2012pp. 17–25.

2

Schirru 2010pp. 111–19.

3

Burgio 2012pp. 38–9.

4

Davidson 1977pp. 94 106.

5

Liguori 1996pp. 48–50.

6

Caserta 1984pp. 204 211.

7

Bellamy 1990p. 313; Bellamy 2001 p. 211.

8

Garin 2008pp. 89–90.

9

Jacobitti 1981pp. 70–3 88–9.

10

Schechter 1990pp. 51–2.

11

Bergami 1977pp. 100–5.

12

Urbinati 1998p. 383.

13

Kołakowski 1981pp. 175–6.

14

Garin 1983p. 160.

15

Kołakowski 1981p. 192.

16

Bravo 2007pp. 111–12.

17

Jacobitti 1975pp. 305 308; Jacobitti 1981 pp. 62 69.

18

Tuozzolo 2008p. 11.

19

Caserta 1983pp. 141 146.

20

Jacobitti 1980pp. 72–4; Jacobitti 1981 pp. 88–9.

21

Davidson 1977pp. 80 105.

22

Catone 1994p. 248. It is the third paragraph of Del Materialismo Storico which appeared in the 5 January 1918 issue of Il Grido del Popolo; Paggi 1970 p. 18.

24

Catone 1994p. 250. It has further been suggested that until the Russian Revolution Gramsci had no concern with theory and orthodoxy and not even a real interest in Marx’s thought. See Rapone 2011.

25

Garin 1983p. 160; Catone 1994 pp. 252–4.

26

Bidussa 1988pp. 232–9.

27

Bidussa 2008pp. 299–309.

28

Catone 1994p. 254.

29

Paggi 1984pp. 427–9 432–6.

30

Bidussa 1988pp. 243–4; Catone 1994 pp. 254–6.

31

Gramsci 1974pp. 149–50.

32

Izzo 2008pp. 553 566.

33

Vacca 2008pp. 92 99.

34

Frosini 2003p. 51. The topic of intellectuals had an especially important role in Gramsci’s early prison work. Three strands can be identified as driving Gramsci’s effective work in prison through to 1930. They are: first ‘Americanism and Fordism’; second the ‘Theory of History and Historiography’ which refers both to a work by Croce with this name and more generally to the philosophy or theory of history; third the theory of intellectuals and the history of Italian intellectuals. At this early stage the theory of intellectuals acted as an overarching ‘framework’ for the rest of Gramsci’s work. Frosini 2011 pp. 911–12.

35

Frosini 2003pp. 30 59–60. Until then despite the expansion in the topics that he wrote on the overarching topic of intellectuals continued to act as leitmotiv or framework through Notebooks 1 3 and 5. Francioni 1984 pp. 70–6.

37

Q3§31 Gramsci 1996p. 30 my emphasis.

41

Q4§3 Gramsci 1996p. 140 my emphases.

43

Q16§9 Gramsci 1977p. 1855. This echoes Labriola’s statement that historical materialism carries within itself the ‘conditions and manners’ that is the seeds ‘of its own philosophy’ in Discorrendo di socialismo e filosofia Labriola 1973 p. 679.

44

Frosini 2003p. 69.

45

Q8§235 Gramsci 2007p. 378.

46

Q10i§11 Gramsci 1977p. 1232. This is a single-draft note first written down by Gramsci in Notebook 10 and in this notebook alone. The first reference to an Anti-Croce is probably in Q8§235 which is redrafted into Notebook 11.

47

Q10i§11 Gramsci 1977p. 1233.

50

Q10i§11 Gramsci 1977p. 1234.

52

Q11§1 Gramsci 1977pp. 1366–8. Here Gramsci discusses an episode reported by Croce regarding Labriola’s views on education. Allegedly Labriola is said to have suggested that underdeveloped peoples should be initially enslaved. Gramsci rejected this view on several grounds criticising Labriola for his mechanistic and undialectical conception.

53

Mastroianni 1991pp. 497–8.

55

Kanoussi 2010pp. 43 58.

56

Q11§70 Gramsci 1977pp. 1508–9 my emphasis.

57

Haug 2000pp. 4–7 10.

58

Zangheri 1999pp. 160–2.

59

Burgio 2012pp. 46–7.

60

Haug 2001pp. 70–2; Dainotto 2009 pp. 51–3 58.

61

Q4§11 Gramsci 1996pp. 152–3.

62

Q4§11 Gramsci 1996p. 153.

63

Q4§32 Gramsci 1996pp. 172–3.

64

Q4§37 Gramsci 1996p. 176.

65

Q4§37 Gramsci 1996pp. 176–7 my emphases. Translation modified to conform more closely to Italian original.

66

Croce 2007p. 50.

67

Frosini 2008pp. 745–6.

68

Frosini 2004p. 99.

69

Haug 2000pp. 1 13 n. 7.

70

Frosini 2004pp. 97–9.

71

Q7§35 Gramsci 2007p. 187.

72

Q8§198 Gramsci 2007p. 348. Croce referred to Labriola’s insight that Marxism was a philosophy of praxis in a note in his Historical Materialism and Marxist Economics. Gramsci refers to this work by Croce rather than to Labriola directly. Labriola had referred to the ‘philosophy of praxis’ as the ‘marrow’ or the heart of historical materialism in his Discorrendo di socialismo e di filosofia Labriola 1973 p. 702.

73

Q8§220 Gramsci 2007p. 369.

74

Cohen 2000pp. xvii xxiii.

75

Q4§45 Gramsci 1996p. 195.

76

Q7§35 Gramsci 2007p. 186 my emphasis.

77

Q7§38 Gramsci 2007pp. 188–9.

78

Q10i§Introduction Gramsci 1977p. 1209 my emphasis.

79

Q10ii§13 Gramsci 1977p. 1250 my emphasis.

80

Cf. Bowles and Gintis 2006.

81

Fattorini 1987p. 90.

82

Q10ii§48ii Gramsci 1977p. 1338 my emphases.

83

Q10ii§54 Gramsci 1977pp. 1344–5 my emphasis.

Information

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 42 42 11
Full Text Views 69 69 50
PDF Downloads 4 4 2
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0