Islamophobia: The Bigger Picture

in Historical Materialism
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

This article maps the emergent field of Islamophobia Studies through a discussion of recently published monographs, representing the broad spectrum of theoretical and analytical approaches to the phenomenon. Strengths and deficiencies in recent works of Nathan Lean, Deepa Kumar, Chris Allen, David Tyrer and Anne Norton are discussed. I argue that in different ways, a more thorough engagement with critical and Marxist theories of racism could contribute to a more accurate understanding of the phenomenon. This, however, is predicated on recognising and theorising Islamophobia as racism – albeit one ‘without races’ – and a discussion about its differences from and similarities to other kinds of racism.

Islamophobia: The Bigger Picture

in Historical Materialism

Sections

References

  • AllenChristopher, '‘Justifying Islamophobia: A Post-9/11 Consideration of the European Union and British Contexts’' (2004) 21(3) American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences: 1-25.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AllenChristopher, Islamophobia, (Ashgate, Farnham 2010).

  • AllenChristopherNielsenJørgen S., Summary Report on Islamophobia in the EU after 11 September 2001, (EUMC, Vienna 2002).

  • Humayun Ansari and Farid Hafez (eds), From the Far Right to the Mainstream: Islamophobia in Party Politics and the Media, (Campus, Frankfurt am Main 2012).

  • BalibarÉtienne, '‘Is There a “Neo-Racism”?’' (1991) 1991..

  • BalibarÉtienneWallersteinImmanuel, Race Nation Class: Ambiguous Identities, (Verso, London 1991).

  • BarkerMartin, The New Racism: Conservatives and the Ideology of the Tribe, (Aletheia Books, Frederick, MD. 1982).

  • Bravo LópezFernando, '‘Towards a Definition of Islamophobia: Approximations of the Early Twentieth Century’' (2010) 34(4) Ethnic and Racial Studies: 556-573.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DelphyChristineBroderDavid, Separate and Dominate: Feminism and Racism after the War on Terror, (Verso, London 2015).

  • John L. Esposito and İbrahim Kalın (eds), Islamophobia: The Challenge of Pluralism in the 21st Century, (Oxford University Press, Oxford 2011).

  • FanonFrantzChevalierHaakon, Towards the African Revolution: Political Essays, (Grove Press, New York 1967).

  • FarrisSara, '‘From the Jewish Question to the Muslim Question: Republican Rigorism, Culturalist Differentialism and Antinomies of Enforced Emancipation’' (2014) 21(2) Constellations: 296-307.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GarnerSteveSelodSaher, '‘The Racialization of Muslims: Empirical Studies of Islamophobia’' (2015) 41(1) Critical Sociology: 9-19.

  • GilroyPaul, Postcolonial Melancholia, (Columbia University Press, New York 2005).

  • HallStuartRobertsBrianClarkeJohnJeffersonTonyCritcherChas, Policing the Crisis: Mugging the State and Law and Order, (Macmillan, London 1978).

  • HallidayFred, '‘“Islamophobia” Reconsidered’' (1999) 22(5) Ethnic and Racial Studies: 892-902.

  • Marc Helbling (ed), Islamophobia in the West: Measuring and Explaining Individual Attitudes, (Routledge, London 2012).

  • HundWulf D., Negative Vergesellschaftung: Dimensionen der Rassismusanalyse, (Westfälisches Dampfboot, Münster 2006).

  • HundWulf D., Rassismus, (Transcript Verlag, Bielefeld 2007).

  • HundWulf D., '‘Negative Societalisation: Racism and the Constitution of Race’', in Wulf D. Hund, Jeremy Krikler and David Roediger (eds), Wages of Whiteness & Racist Symbolic Capital, (Lit, Berlin 2010).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HundWulf D., '‘Vor, mit, nach und ohne “Rassen”. Reichweiten der Rassismusforschung’' (2012) 52 Archiv für Sozialgeschichte: 723-761.

  • HuntingtonSamuel P., Who Are We? The Challenges to America’s National Identity, (Simon & Schuster, New York 2004).

  • KlugBrian, '‘Islamophobia: A Concept Comes of Age’' (2012) 12(5) Ethnicities: 665-681.

  • KumarDeepa, Islamophobia and the Politics of Empire, (Haymarket Books, Chicago 2012).

  • KundnaniArun, The Muslims Are Coming! Islamophobia Extremism and the Domestic War on Terror, (Verso, London 2014).

  • LaclauErnestoMouffeChantal, Hegemony and Socialist Strategy: Towards a Radical Democratic Politics, (Verso, London 2001).

  • LeanNathan, The Islamophobia Industry: How the Right Manufactures Fear of Muslims, (Pluto Press, London 2012).

  • LeiboldJürgen, '‘Fremdenfeindlichkeit und Islamophobie’', in Thorsten Gerald Schneiders (ed), Islamfeindlichkeit, (VS Verlag, Bielefeld 2010).

  • LentinAlanaTitleyGavin, The Crises of Multiculturalism: Racism in a Neoliberal Age, (Zed Books, London 2011).

  • MastnakTomaž, '‘Western Hostility toward Muslims: A History of the Present’', in Andrew Shryock (ed), Islamophobia/Islamophilia: Beyond the Politics of Enemy and Friend, (Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN. 2010).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MeerNasarModoodTariq, '‘The Racialisation of Muslims’', in Salman Sayyid and Abdoolkarim Vakil (eds), Thinking Through Islamophobia, (Hurst, London 2010).

  • MilesRobert, Racism, (Routledge, London 1989).

  • MoreyPeterYaqinAmina, Framing Muslims: Stereotyping and Representation after 9/11, (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. 2011).

  • George Morgan and Scott Poynting (eds), Global Islamophobia: Muslims and Moral Panic in the West, (Ashgate, Farnham 2012).

  • Müller-UriFanny, Antimuslimischer Rassismus, (Mandelbaum, Vienna 2014).

  • Müller-UriFannyOpratkoBenjamin, '‘L’islamophobie et les théories critiques du racisme’' (2014) Période. Revue en ligne de théorie marxiste available at: <http://revueperiode.net/lislamophobie-et-les-theories-critiques-du-racisme>..

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NortonAnne, '‘On the Muslim Question’', in Monica Mookherjee (ed), Democracy Religious Pluralism and the Liberal Dilemma of Accommodation, (Springer, New York 2011).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • NortonAnne, On the Muslim Question, (Princeton University Press, Princeton 2013).

  • RanaJunaid, Terrifying Muslims: Race and Labor in the South Asian Diaspora, (Duke University Press, Durham, NC. 2011).

  • Sieglinde Rosenberger and Birgit Sauer (eds), Politics Religion and Gender: Framing and Regulating the Veil, (Routledge, London 2012).

  • Runnymede Trust, Islamophobia: A Challenge For Us All, (The Runnymede Trust, London 1997).

  • Salman Sayyid and Abdoolkarim Vakil (eds), Thinking through Islamophobia: Global Perspectives, (Columbia University Press, New York 2010).

  • ScottJoan Wallach, The Politics of the Veil, (Princeton University Press, Princeton 2007).

  • SheehiStephen, Islamophobia: The Ideological Campaign against Muslims, (Clarity Press, Atlanta 2011).

  • ShoomanYasemin, '‘Keine Frage des Glaubens. Zur Rassifizierung von “Kultur” und “Religion” im antimuslimischen Rassismus’', in Sebastian Friedrich (ed), Rassismus in der Leistungsgesellschaft. Analysen und kritische Perspektiven zu den rassistischen Normalisierungsprozessen der ‘Sarrazindebatte’, (edition assemblage, Münster 2011).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • StrabacZanListhaugOla, '‘Anti-Muslim Prejudice in Europe: A Multilevel Analysis of Survey Data from 30 Countries’' (2008) 37(1) Social Science Research: 268-286.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TarasRaymon, Xenophobia and Islamophobia in Europe, (Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 2012).

  • ThompsonJohn B., Ideology and Modern Culture: Critical Social Theory in the Era of Mass Communication, (Polity Press, Cambridge 1990).

  • TyrerDavid, The Politics of Islamophobia: Race Power and Fantasy, (Pluto Press, London 2013).

  • TyrerDavidSayyidSalman, '‘Governing Ghosts: Race, Incorporeality and Difference in Post-political Times’' (2012) 60(3) Current Sociology: 353-367.

  • ZempiIreneChakrabortiNeil, Islamophobia Victimisation and the Veil, (Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke 2014).

  • 1

    Huntington 2004p. 262.

  • 2

    Cf. Allen 2004Kundnani 2014 and the books discussed below.

  • 3

    Cf. Morey and Yaqin 2011; Rana 2011pp. 74–93.

  • 4

    Mastnak 2010.

  • 5

    Runnymede Trust 1997p. 4.

  • 8

    Sayyid and Vakil (eds.) 2010.

  • 9

    Lean 2012p. 10.

  • 11

    Lean 2012pp. 41ff. Their organisation ‘Stop Islamization of America’ has since gained even more prominence sponsoring racist ad campaigns on public transit systems in San Francisco New York City and Washington dc.

  • 12

    Lean 2012p. 182.

  • 13

    Lean 2012p. 184.

  • 14

    Kumar 2012p. 199.

  • 15

    Kumar 2012pp. 175ff. This is not to say that there is nothing to be gained from a systematic comparison between McCarthyist anti-Communism (or other domestic reactionary traditions) and contemporary anti-Muslim racism in the us. Unfortunately neither Lean nor Kumar pursue such a comparative perspective. ‘McCarthyism’ in both books is used as a keyword invoking the intentional creation of an ‘atmosphere of mounting fear and panic’ (Lean 2012 p. 31) or ‘a climate of fear that bolsters the aims of empire’ (Kumar 2012 p. 176) and referring to the strategic instrumentalisation of this manufactured climate for a coordinated attack on political enemies abroad and dissent at home.

  • 16

    Kumar 2012p. 3.

  • 17

    Kumar 2012pp. 113ff.

  • 18

    Kumar 2012p. 42 emphasis in original.

  • 19

    Kumar 2012p. 9.

  • 20

    Kumar 2012p. 176.

  • 22

    Kumar 2012p. 132.

  • 23

    Kumar 2012p. 133.

  • 25

    Kumar 2012pp. 41ff.

  • 26

    Kumar 2012p. 3.

  • 27

    Kumar 2012p. 133.

  • 28

    Kumar 2012pp. 132 188 132.

  • 29

    Allen and Nielsen 2002.

  • 30

    Allen 2010pp. 7ff. For the first recorded usage of the term Islamophobia in print Allen refers to a French article published in 1925 by the painter and Islamic convert Étienne Dinet and his Algerian co-religionist Slima Ben Ibrahim but claims that their usage of the term differed widely from today’s meaning. That this is not entirely correct has since been shown by Fernando Bravo López in an article published a year after Allen’s book. According to Bravo López ‘Islamophobia’ was used as early as 1910 both by the French Africanist Maurice Delafosse and the colonial bureaucrat Alain Quellien and its referent – ‘the belief that Islam and Muslims were the implacable absolute and eternal enemies of Christianity Christians Europe and Europeans’ – seems to be not as far removed from modern usage as Allen seems to suggest (Bravo López 2010 pp. 568ff.).

  • 31

    Allen 2010p. 16.

  • 32

    Runnymede Trust 1997pp. 1 4.

  • 33

    Allen 2010p. 79. Allen echoes earlier criticism by Fred Halliday (cf. Halliday 1999).

  • 34

    Allen 2010p. 187.

  • 35

    Allen 2010p. 188.

  • 36

    Allen 2010p. 167.

  • 37

    Allen 2010pp. 171ff.

  • 38

    Allen 2010p. 164; Hall Roberts Clarke Jefferson and Critcher 1978.

  • 39

    Thompson 1990p. 53.

  • 40

    Allen 2010p. 61.

  • 41

    Allen 2010p. 136.

  • 42

    Cf. Meer and Modood 2010Tyrer 2013 Rana 2011 Shooman 2011 Müller-Uri 2014 and Müller-Uri and Opratko 2014.

  • 43

    Allen 2010p. 10.

  • 44

    Allen 2010pp. 62ff.

  • 45

    Allen 2010p. 153.

  • 46

    Barker 1982.

  • 47

    Allen 2010p. 155.

  • 48

    Tyrer 2013p. 22.

  • 49

    Tyrer 2013p. 23.

  • 50

    Tyrer 2013p. 53.

  • 51

    Tyrer 2013p. 33.

  • 52

    Tyrer 2013p. 31.

  • 53

    Tyrer 2013p. 121.

  • 54

    Tyrer 2013p. 122.

  • 55

    Allen 2010p. 153.

  • 56

    Tyrer 2013p. 80.

  • 57

    Tyrer and Sayyid 2012p. 354.

  • 58

    Tyrer 2013p. 44.

  • 59

    Tyrer 2013p. 29.

  • 60

    Tyrer 2013p. 44.

  • 61

    Tyrer 2013p. 46.

  • 62

    Tyrer 2013p. 36.

  • 63

    Tyrer 2013p. 28.

  • 64

    Tyrer 2013p. 172.

  • 65

    Tyrer 2013p. 36.

  • 66

    Tyrer 2013p. 68.

  • 67

    Balibar 1991p. 22. Balibar’s intervention at that time was directed at those on the anti-racist left struggling to come to terms with the permutations of European and especially French right-wing populism. It must be noted however that the idea of a ‘cultural’ racism has a much longer history in anti-racist and anti-colonial thinking. It emerges as early as 1956 in a speech given by Frantz Fanon and informs Edward Said’s writings on colonialism from the late 1970s onwards to mention just two obvious examples (Fanon 1967 pp. 29–44).

  • 69

    Hund 2010p. 59.

  • 70

    Hund 2007p. 9.

  • 71

    Laclau and Mouffe 2001p. 153.

  • 72

    Tyrer 2013pp. 153ff.; Norton 2011.

  • 73

    Norton 2013p. 2.

  • 74

    Norton 2013p. 35.

  • 75

    Norton 2013p. 44.

  • 76

    Norton 2013p. 11.

  • 77

    Norton 2013p. 195.

  • 78

    Norton 2013p. 226. The reference to Andalusian territory is to what she interprets as the peaceful coexistence of Muslims Christians and Jews in ‘moorish’ Al-Andalus.

  • 79

    Strabac and Listhaug 2008p. 281.

  • 80

    Strabac and Listhaug 2008p. 280.

  • 81

    Leibold 2010p. 154.

  • 82

    Gilroy 2005.

  • 84

    Morey and Yaqin 2011p. 177.

  • 85

    Kumar 2012pp. 44–5.

  • 86

    Lentin and Titley 2011p. 121.

Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 164 155 11
Full Text Views 239 239 3
PDF Downloads 42 42 1
EPUB Downloads 16 16 0