The implications of Marxist state theories developed by Nicos Poulantzas and Ralph Miliband are useful for framing issues related to leftist strategy in twenty-first-century Venezuela. A relationship exists between each of the theories and three issues facing the Chavista movement: whether the bourgeoisie (or sectors of it) displays a sense of ‘class-consciousness’; the viability of tactical and strategic alliances between the left and groups linked to the capitalist structure; and whether socialism is to be achieved through stages, abrupt revolutionary changes, or ongoing state radicalisation over a period of time. During Poulantzas’s lifetime, his concept of the state as a ‘strategic battlefield’ lent itself to the left’s promotion of ‘strategic alliances’ with parties to its right. The same concept is compatible with the ‘process of change’ in Venezuela, in which autonomous movements play a fundamental role in transforming the old state and the construction of new state structures.
BarrowClyde W.WetherlyPaulBarrowClyde W.BurnhamPeter‘Ralph Miliband and the Instrumentalist Theory of the State: The (Mis)Construction of an Analytic Concept’Class, Power and the State in Capitalist Society: Essays on Ralph MiIiband2008BasingstokePalgrave Macmillan
cmr [Corriente Marxista Revolucionaria]‘El legado de Hugo Chávez: La revolución venezolana y la lucha por el socialismo’El Militante2013April514available at: <http://www.izquierdarevolucionariave.net/index.php/venezuela-b/8317-el-legado-de-hugo-chavez-la-revolucion-venezolana-y-la-lucha-por-el-socialismo>
HaiderAsad‘Bernstein in Seattle: Representative Democracy and the Revolutionary Subject (Part 1)’Viewpoint Magazine2016aMay15available at: <https://viewpointmag.com/2016/05/15/bernstein-in-seattle-representative-democracy-and-the-revolutionary-subject-part-1/>
HaiderAsad‘Bernstein in Seattle: Representative Democracy and the Revolutionary Subject (Part 2)’Viewpoint Magazine2016bMay23available at: <https://viewpointmag.com/2016/05/23/bernstein-in-seattle-representative-democracy-and-the-revolutionary-subject-part-2/>
HarneckerMarta‘Latin America and Twenty-First Century Socialism: Inventing to Avoid Mistakes’Monthly Review2010623383[Special Issue]available at: <https://monthlyreview.org/2010/07/01/latin-america-twenty-first-century-socialism/>
JessopBobCowlingMarkMartinJames‘The Political Scene and the Politics of Representation: Periodising Class Struggle and the State in the Eighteenth Brumaire’Marx’s ‘Eighteenth Brumaire’: (Post)modern Interpretations2002LondonPluto Press
Thwaites ReyMabelOuviñaHernánThwaites ReyMabel‘La estatalidad latinoamericana revisitada: Reflexiones e hipótesis alrededor del problema del poder política y las transiciones’El estado en América Latina: continuidades y rupturas2012Buenos AiresCLACSO
Barrow1993, p. 13. ‘Hard instrumentalism’ especially differs from non-Marxist instrumentalism, which focuses on the disproportionate influence of capitalists on policy-making, but leaves the defence of the capitalist system out of the picture. In doing so, it ignores the ‘class-consciousness’ of the capitalist class, a feature that is central to the thinking of Marxist instrumentalists and is of primary concern for this article. See, for instance, Domhoff 1990, pp. 2–5.
Barrow2008, pp. 94–5. Ironically, the positions of Miliband and Poulantzas began to converge in the mid-1970s precisely when the exchanges between the two became particularly offensive. One scholar notes that Miliband at this time developed a ‘reconstituted instrumentalist theory’ marked by ‘convergences’ with Poulantzas on a number of issues. Areas of agreement included: the need to struggle simultaneously within and outside of the state in the transition to socialism; the state’s relative autonomy; the ‘principle of a plurality of parties’ on the left in the revolutionary process; and the critique of rightist currents within the Eurocommunist movement (Haider 2016b).
Sweezy1942, p. 243.
Miliband1977, p. 83.
Miliband1969, p. 111.
Miliband1969, pp. 177–8.
See Block1977, pp. 8–9.
Block1980, p. 236.
Poulantzas1969, p. 78; Althusser 1971, p. 147; Althusser and Balibar 1970, pp. 216–18.
Jessop2002, pp. 179–94.
Barrow1993, p. 62.
See Block1977, pp. 14–19.
Block1977, pp. 12–13.
Ferretter2006, pp. 69–70.
Lewis2007, pp. 140–3. Poulantzas I rejected the pcf’s broad-based anti-monopoly alliance and similarly Garaudy’s ‘new historic bloc’ (Poulantzas 1975, p. 231).
Poulantzas1978, p. 141.
Poulantzas1978, pp. 152, 259.
Poulantzas1978, pp. 129, 131; Poulantzas 1979, p. 198.
Poulantzas1978, pp. 254, 258.
Poulantzas1975, pp. 204–5; Jessop 1982, pp. 168–9.
Poulantzas1979, p. 195.
Poulantzas1978, p. 257.
Poulantzas1979, p. 195.
Gates2010, pp. 26–31.
Bilbao2008, p. 196.
Collier and Collier1991, p. 333.
As the economic crisis deepened in2015, leftist Chavista currents such as ‘Marea Socialista’ (ms) hardened their position against Maduro. ms leaders Gonzalo Gómez, Nicmer Evans and others recognised the existence of an economic war consciously waged by the business sector but argued that the term was being used by Maduro to avoid attacking such problems as capital flight and corruption by nationalising the banks and foreign commerce.
Domhoff1990, pp. 69, 187.
Ellner2015. The motives of capitalists who rule out costly expansion because they are sceptical about being able to reap sufficient profit due to the policies of an unfriendly government are difficult to determine. The decision may be the result of a simple cost-benefit calculation or may be politically driven with the aim of generating instability either to influence policy or promote regime change. The distinctions between these motives may be hazy and in any case difficult to document.
Woods2008, p. 415; see also Valderrama and Mena 2005, p. 69.
Woods2008, pp. 391–2; Woods 2009, pp. 12–14.
See, for instance, Bilbao2008, pp. 182, 195–6.
Harnecker2010, p. 62; see also Harnecker 2012, pp. 166–7; Lebowitz 2010, pp. 152–3; Bilbao 2008, p. 195.
Poulantzas1979, p. 196.
Thwaites Rey and Ouviña2012, pp. 75–8.
Ortiz2004, pp. 79–81; Gates 2010, pp. 26–31.
Poulantzas1978, p. 251; Jessop 1982, p. 179; Jessop 2008, p. 118.