Communicating the Homeland’s Relationship with its Diaspora Community: The Cases of El Salvador and Colombia

in The Hague Journal of Diplomacy
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This article explores the official communication of the governments of El Salvador and Colombia to, and about, their diaspora communities. Through a qualitative content analysis of news releases, speeches, factsheets and other public information material, the themes used to ‘construct’ the image of the diaspora are explored, as well as the issues that these governments traditionally associate with their expatriates. The study also analyses the type of relationship described (that is, communal versus exchange), with its findings suggesting a typology of government-to-diaspora communication and a new category of relationship (‘hybrid’ relationships), which is detailed herein.

Communicating the Homeland’s Relationship with its Diaspora Community: The Cases of El Salvador and Colombia

in The Hague Journal of Diplomacy

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References

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    Rey Koslowski (ed.)International Migration and the Globalization of Domestic Politics (London: Routledge2005).

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  • 9

    See for example Alan Gamlen‘The Emigration State and the Modern Geopolitical Imagination’Political Geographyvol. 27 2008 pp. 840-856; Carlos González Gutiérrez ‘Del acercamiento a la inclusión institucional: La experiencia del Instituto de los Mexicanos en el Exterior’ in Carlos González Gutiérrez (ed.) Relaciones Estado Diáspora: Aproximaciones Desde Cuatro Continentes (México City: Porrúa 2006) pp. 181-220; Robert Courtney Smith ‘Migrant Membership as an Instituted Process: Transnationalization the State and the Extra-territorial Conduct of Mexican Politics’ in Rey Koslowski (ed.) International Migration and the Globalization of Domestic Politics (London: Routledge 2005) pp. 105-129; and Yun ‘Relational Public Diplomacy’ pp. 2199-2219.

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    Yun‘Relational Public Diplomacy’ pp. 2199-2219.

  • 19

    See for example Gamlen‘The Emigration State’ pp. 840-856; Yun ‘Relational Public Diplomacy’ pp. 2199-2219; Carlos González Gutiérrez ‘Fostering Identities: Mexico’s Relations with its Diaspora’ The Journal of American History vol. 86 no. 2 1999 pp. 545-567; González Gutiérrez ‘Del acercamiento a la inclusión institucional’ pp. 181-220; and Smith ‘Migrant Membership as an Instituted Process’ pp. 105-129.

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  • 20

    For example in Robin Cohen‘Diasporas and the Nation-state: From Victims to Challengers’International Affairs vol. 72 1996 pp. 507-520; Alexandra Délano ‘Immigrant Integration vs. Transnational Ties? The Role of the Sending State’ Social Research vol. 77 no. 1 2010 pp. 237-268; Jesús Martínez-Saldaña ‘Los olvidados become Heroes: The Evolution of Mexico’s Policies towards Citizens Abroad’ in Eva Østergaard-Nielsen (ed.) International Migration and Sending Countries: Perceptions Policies and Transnational Relations (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan 2003) pp. 33-56; and David Fitzgerald ‘Inside the Sending State: The Politics of Mexican Emigration Control’ International Migration Review vol. 40 no. 2 2006 pp. 259-293.

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    See Levitt and de la Dehesa‘Transnational Migration and the Redefinition of the State’ pp. 587-611; and Linda Basch Nina Schiller and C. Szanton Blanc Nations Unbound: Transnational Projects Postcolonial Predicaments and Deterritorialized Nation-states (Langhorne pa: Gordon and Breach 1994).

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    Koslowski‘International Migration and the Globalization of Domestic Politics’ pp. 5-32.

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    Kathy Fitzpatrick‘Advancing the New Public Diplomacy: A Public Relations Perspective’The Hague Journal of Diplomacyvol. 2 no. 3 2007 pp. 187-211; and Jan Melissen (ed.) The New Public Diplomacy: Soft Power in International Relations (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan 2005).

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  • 34

    See for example Fitzpatrick‘Advancing the New Public Diplomacy’ pp. 187-211; Zaharna ‘Mapping out a Spectrum of Public Diplomacy Initiatives’ pp. 86-100; Yun ‘Relational Public Diplomacy’ pp. 2199-2219; Benno H. Signitzer and Timothy Coombs ‘Public Relations and Public Diplomacy: Conceptual Convergences’ Public Relations Review vol. 18 no. 2 1992 pp. 137-147; Benno H. Signitzer and Carola Wamser ‘Public Diplomacy: A Specific Governmental Public Relations Function’ in Carl H. Botan and Vincent Hazleton (eds) Public Relations Theory II (Mahwah nj: Lawrence Erlbaum 2006) pp. 435-464; and Guy J. Golan ‘An Integrated Approach to Public Diplomacy’ American Behavioral Scientist vol. 57 no. 9 2013 pp. 1251-1255.

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  • 35

    For instance in Zaharna‘Mapping out a Spectrum of Public Diplomacy Initiatives’ pp. 86-100; and Geoffrey Cowan and Amelia Arsenault ‘Moving from Monologue to Dialogue to Collaboration: The Three Layers of Public Diplomacy’ The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science vol. 616 no. 1 2008 pp. 10-30.

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  • 36

    Golan‘An Integrated Approach to Public Diplomacy’American Behavioral Scientistvol. 57 no. 9 2013 pp. 1251-1255.

  • 38

    Hernández Joseph‘Mexico’s Concentration on Consular Services in the United States’ pp. 227-236.

  • 60

    Cohen‘Diasporas and the Nation-state’ pp. 507-520; Délano ‘Immigrant Integration vs. Transnational Ties?’ pp. 237-268; Martínez-Saldaña ‘Los olvidados become Heroes’ pp. 33-56; and Fitzgerald ‘Inside the Sending State’ pp. 259-293.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 61

    Levitt and de la Dehesa‘Transnational Migration and the Redefinition of the State’ pp. 587-611.

  • 83

    Kunz‘Mobilizing Diasporas’ pp. 1-23; Ragazzi ‘Governing Diasporas’ pp. 378-397; and Gamlen ‘The Emigration State’ pp. 840-856.

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  • 105

    Safran‘Deconstructing and Comparing Diasporas’ pp. 9-29 at p. 20.

  • 106

    Zaharna‘Mapping out a Spectrum of Public Diplomacy Initiatives’ pp. 86-100; Cowan and Arsenault ‘Moving from Monologue to Dialogue to Collaboration’ pp. 10-30; Fitzpatrick ‘Advancing the New Public Diplomacy’ pp. 187-211; and Yun ‘Relational Public Diplomacy’ pp. 2199-2219.

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