Radical changes in diplomacy’s global environment challenge traditional categories in diplomacy’s study and practice. The “foreign” and “domestic” divide is blurred beyond easy recognition. Public diplomacy is no longer a separate instrument of diplomacy. The term marginalizes a public dimension that is now central in diplomatic practice. This article examines four boundaries that both separate and connect: (1) a distinction between diplomacy and foreign policy that benefits diplomacy studies and clarifies choices in practice; (2) a framework for diplomacy’s public dimension that connects types of diplomatic actors with process variables; (3) a separation between diplomacy and civil society that distinguishes diplomacy from other relationships between groups; and (4) characteristics of diplomacy and governance that explain how they differ from other political and social categories. Diplomatic and governance actors are categorized in trans-governmental and polylateral networks. Civil society and private sector actors are categorized in cosmopolitan and private governance networks.
Terry L. DeibelForeign Affairs Strategy: Logic for American Statecraft (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press2007) pp. 207-280; and Charles A. Stevenson America’s Foreign Policy Toolkit: Key Institutions and Processes (Los Angeles ca: cq Press 2013) pp. 1-5 and 141-168.
Jarol B. ManheimStrategic Public Diplomacy and American Foreign Policy (Oxford: Oxford University Press1994); Todd C. Helmus Christopher Paul and Russell W. Glenn Enlisting Madison Avenue: The Marketing Approach to Earning Popular Support in Theaters of Operation (Santa Monica ca: rand Corporation 2007).
PigmanContemporary Diplomacy pp. 86and 88. See also Geoffrey Allen Pigman ‘The Diplomacy of Global and Transnational Firms’ in Cooper Heine and Thakur (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy pp. 192-208.
Robert O. KeohanePower and Governance in a Partially Globalized World (London: Routledge2002) p. 202. On distinctions between government and governance see also James N. Rosenau Along the Domestic–Foreign Frontier: Exploring Governance in a Turbulent World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1997) pp. 144-173.
Brian Hocking‘(Mis)Leading Propositions about 21st Century Diplomacy’Crossroads: The Macedonian Foreign Policy Journalvol. 3 no. 2 (April–October 2012) pp 80-81. See also Kanishka Jayasuriya ‘Breaking the “Westphalian” Frame: Regulatory State Fragmentation and Diplomacy’ Discussion Papers in Diplomacy no. 90 (The Hague: Netherlands Institute of International Relations ‘Clingendael’ January 2004).