Beastly Diplomacy

in The Hague Journal of Diplomacy
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Even if beastly iconography has been pervasive in international politics, the study of diplomacy has traditionally focused solely on man as a political animal. Animals in diplomacy have been treated as a curiosity. This article stakes a claim for a more serious engagement with beastly diplomacy, arguing that animals matter through their ontic status; by representing states; as diplomatic subjects; and as objects of diplomacy. The article places particular emphasis on how animals are a special kind of diplomatic gift, with a variety of meanings and functions. Taking animals seriously implies a rethinking of both the process and the outcomes of diplomacy.

Beastly Diplomacy

in The Hague Journal of Diplomacy

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References

1

A major exception is Frans de WaalChimpanzee Politics: Sex and Power among Apes (New York: Harper and Row1982).

3

Fudge‘A Left-Handed Blow’ p. 7; and Chris Philo and Chris Wilbert ‘Animal Spaces Beastly Places: An Introduction’ in Chris Philo and Chris Wilbert (eds.) Animal Spaces Beastly Places: New Geographies of HumanAnimal Relations (London: Routledge 2000) p. 2.

7

Kersty Hobson‘Political Animals? On Animals as Subjects in an Enlarged Political Geography’Political Geographyvol. 26 no. 3 (2007) pp. 250-267; and Kathryn Gillespie and Rosemary-Claire Collard Critical Animal Geographies: Politics Intersections and Hierarchies in a Multispecies World (Abingdon: Routledge 2015).

8

Erika Cudworth and Stephen HobdenPosthuman International Relations: Complexity Ecologism and Global Politics (London: Zed Books2011); Erika Cudworth and Stephen Hobden ‘Complexity Ecologism and Posthuman Politics’ Review of International Studies vol. 39 no. 3 (2012) pp. 643-664; Erika Cudworth and Stephen Hobden ‘Civilization and the Domination of the Animal’ Millennium vol. 42 no. 3 (2014) pp. 746-766; Rafi Youatt ‘Interspecies Relations International Relations: Rethinking Anthropocentric Politics’ Millennium vol. 43 no. 1 (2014) pp. 207-223; and Antoine Bousquet ‘Prolegomena to Post-Anthropocentric International Relations: Biosphere and Technosphere in the Age of Global Complexity’ in Emilian Kavalski (ed.) World Politics at the Edge of Chaos: Reflections on Complexity and Global Life (New York: suny Press 2015) pp. 189-207.

11

Falk Hartig‘Panda Diplomacy: The Cutest Part of China’s Public Diplomacy’The Hague Journal of Diplomacyvol. 8 no. 1 (2013) pp. 49-78.

14

Iver B. NeumannDiplomatic Sites (New York: Columbia University Press2012).

15

Tzvetan TodorovThe Conquest of America: The Question of the Other (New York: Harper Perennial1992).

16

Mariana BelozerskayaThe Medici Giraffe and Other Tales of Exotic Animals and Power (New York: Little, Brown & Company2006) pp. 147-154.

17

TodorovThe Conquest of America pp. 38 and 42-43.

18

TodorovThe Conquest of America p. 76.

19

Patricia Seed‘“Are These Not Also Men?”: The Indians’ Humanity and Capacity for Spanish Civilization’Journal of Latin American Studiesvol. 25 no. 3 (1993) pp. 636-637.

20

Seed‘“Are These Not Also Men?”’ p. 638.

21

Naeem Inayatullah and David. L. BlaneyInternational Relations and the Problem of Difference (London: Routledge2004) chapter 2 et passim.

22

Nick Vaughan-Williams‘“We Are Not Animals!” Humanitarian Border Security and Zoopolitical Spaces in Europe’Political Geographyvol. 45 (2015) pp. 1-10; and Kathryn Denning ‘Regarding the Zoo: On the Deployment of a Metaphor’ International Journal of Heritage Studies vol. 14 no. 1 (2008) pp. 60-73.

25

Steve BakerPicturing the Beast: Animals Identity and Representation (Manchester: Manchester University Press1993) p. 55 et passim.

27

Nancy Cushing and Kevin Markwell‘Platypus Diplomacy: Animal Gifts in International Relations’Journal of Australian Studiesvol. 33 no. 3 (2009) pp. 255-271.

28

Sarah Cheang‘Women, Pets and Imperialism: The British Pekingese Dog and Nostalgia for Old China’Journal of British Studiesvol. 45 no. 2 (2006) pp. 359-387.

29

Cheang‘Women Pets and Imperialism’ pp. 366-367.

30

Cheang‘Women Pets and Imperialism’ pp. 261 376 and 383.

31

M.J. McFall-Ngai‘Negotiations between Animals and Bacteria: The “Diplomacy” of the Squid-Vibrio Symbiosis’Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part Avol. 126 no. 4 (2000) p. 471.

34

Aafke Komter‘Gifts and Social Relations: The Mechanisms of Reciprocity’International Sociologyvol. 22 no. 1 (2007) pp. 93-107.

38

James Der DerianOn Diplomacy: A Genealogy of Western Estrangement (Oxford: Blackwell1987).

43

Stanley J. Olsen‘The Camel in Ancient China and an Osteology of the Camel’Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphiavol. 140 no. 1 (1988) p. 22.

44

R. Trevor Wilson‘Extra-Limital Records of the One-Humped Camel in West and Central Africa’Journal of Camel Practice and Researchvol. 21 no. 2 (2012) pp. 115-120.

45

Byung-Joon Kim‘Trade and Tribute along the Silk Road before the Third Century AD’Journal of Central Eurasian Studiesvol. 2 (May 2011) p. 9.

46

Kim‘Trade and Tribute along the Silk Road before the Third Century AD’ p. 13.

47

LauferThe Giraffe in History and Art p. 36.

48

BelozerskayaThe Medici Giraffe and Other Tales of Exotic Animals and Power p. 6.

49

Leslie Brubaker‘The Elephant and the Ark: Cultural and Material Interchange across the Mediterranean in the Eighth and Ninth Centuries’Dumbarton Oaks Papersvol. 58 (2004) p. 176.

50

Brubaker‘The Elephant and the Ark’ p. 176.

53

Olivier Lagueux‘Geoffroy’s Giraffe: The Hagiography of a Charismatic Mammal’Journal of the History of Biologyvol. 36 no. 2 (2003) p. 229 note 13.

56

BelozerskayaThe Medici Giraffe and Other Tales of Exotic Animals and Power pp. 118-119 and 125-127.

58

BediniThe Pope’s Elephant p. 125.

59

BediniThe Pope’s Elephant p. 125. The rhinoceros had already been a diplomatic gift twice first given from the Sultan of Cambay as a reciprocal gift to Alfonso de Albuquerque the governor of Portuguese India and then as a gift of submission from Albuquerque to King Manuel i. It became immortalized when Albrecht Dürer made a woodcut of it.

60

Erik Ringmar‘Audience for a Giraffe: European Expansionism and the Quest for the Exotic’Journal of World Historyvol. 17 no. 4 (2006) p. 380.

61

Egmond‘Precious Nature’ p. 50.

62

Rosamond McKitterickCharlemagne: The Formation of a European Identity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press2008) p. 286.

63

Ringmar‘Audience for a Giraffe’ pp. 390-392.

64

BelozerskayaThe Medici Giraffe and Other Tales of Exotic Animals and Power pp. 142-143.

65

Egmond‘Precious Nature’ p. 51.

66

Ringmar‘Audience for a Giraffe’ pp. 396-397.

68

Lagueux‘Geoffroy’s Giraffe’ pp. 230-231.

69

Edward Keene‘A Case Study of the Construction of International Hierarchy: British Treaty-Making against the Slave Trade in the Early Nineteenth Century’International Organizationvol. 61 no. 2 (2007) pp. 311-339.

70

Lagueux‘Geoffroy’s Giraffe’ p. 231.

71

See Cushing and Markwell‘Platypus Diplomacy’; and Natalie Lawrence, ‘The Prime Minister and the Platypus: A Paradox Goes to War’Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciencesvol. 43 no. 1 (2012) pp. 290-297.

74

Charles Homans‘Zoopolitics’Foreign Policy (26 May 2010).

76

Cornelius Holtorf‘Zoos as Heritage: An Archaeological Perspective’International Journal of Heritage Studiesvol. 14 no. 1 (2008) p. 6.

79

Hartig‘Panda Diplomacy’ p. 53 note 25.

84

Iver B. Neumann and Halvard LeiraAktiv og avventende i hundre år: Utenrikstjenestens liv 1905-2005 (Oslo: Pax2005).

85

Larry Winter RoederDiplomacy Funding and Animal Welfare (Berlin: Springer2011).

86

Linda J. Lowenstine‘Long Distance Pathology, or Will the Mountain Gorilla Fit in the Diplomatic Pouch?’ in Proceedings of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians (South Padre Island tx: American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Press 1990) pp. 178-185.

87

Arne KallandUnveiling the Whale: Discourses on Whales and Whaling (Oxford: Berghahn2009).

91

Rosemary-Claire Collard‘Panda Politics’The Canadian Geographer/Le Géographe canadien vol. 57 no. 2 (2013) p. 228.

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