Ethnic Diversity in the Recruitment of Diplomats: Why MFAs Take the Issue Seriously

In: The Hague Journal of Diplomacy
View More View Less
  • a Sciences Po (CERI), Paris, France
  • b Norwegian Institute of International Relations (NUPI), Oslo, Norway
  • c Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
  • d Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India
  • e National University of Singapore, Singapore

Login via Institution

Purchase instant access (PDF download and unlimited online access):

€25.00$30.00

Summary

Diversity and its management have become an issue in all organisations. Ministries of foreign affairs (MFAs) do not escape the issue. In the 2000s, states decided to consider more ethnic diversity in the recruitment of their diplomats. In some countries, this new goal requires affirmative action programs. This article is based on three case studies. The first case study analyses two Western countries — France and Norway — where MFAs have to reflect the diversity of immigration in their societies. The second case study analyses the case of Brazil, a country where the legacy of slavery still causes discrimination in the recruitment of diplomats. The third case study analyses ethnic diversity in the MFAs of India and Singapore, which recognise multiculturalism or multiracialism. The study draws five comparative conclusions to generalise on why MFAs in the world cannot escape the challenge of ethnic diversity in their recruitment policy.

  • Aggestam, Karin and Christopher Hill, ‘The Challenge of Multiculturalism in European Foreign Policy’. International Affairs 84 (1) (2008), 97-114.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aggestam, Karin and Anne E. Towns, eds. Gendering Diplomacy and International Negotiation (Abingdon: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018).

  • Annuaire Diplomatique et Consulaire 2017 (Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 2017).

  • Baillou, Jean, ed. Les affaires étrangères et le corps diplomatique français (Paris: CNRS Editions, 1984).

  • Behrens, Paul, ed. Diplomatic Law in a New Milennium (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017).

  • Bendl, Regine, Inge Bleijenbergh, Elina Hentonnen and Albert J. Mills. ‘Introduction: Mapping the Field of Diversity in Organisations’. In Oxford Handbook of Diversity in Organisations, eds. Regine Bendl, Inge Bleijenbergh, Elina Hentonnen and Albert J. Mills (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016), 1-12.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bouden, Jane. ‘The United Nations Security Council, Ethnicity and Ethnic Conflict’. In International Approaches to Governing Ethnic Diversity, eds. Jane Boulden and Will Kymlicka (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015), 219-242.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CACD (Concurso de Admissão à Carreira de Diplomata). 2018. www.cespe.unb.br/concursos/_artigos/default.asp.

  • Carsten, Anckar. ‘On the Applicability of the Most Similar Systems Design and the Most Different Systems Design in Comparative Research’. International Journal of Social Research Methodology 11 (5) (2008), 389-401.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cassidy, Jennifer A., ed. Gender and Diplomacy (London: Routledge, 2017).

  • Chua, B.H.Multiculturalism in Singapore: An Instrument of Social Control’. Race and Class 44 (3) (2003), 58-77.

  • Dasque, Isabelle. A la recherche de Monsieur de Norpois: Les Diplomates de la République (1871-1914), Doctoral Thesis (Department of History, University of Paris Sorbonne, 2005).

  • David Cross, Mai’a K. The European Diplomatic Corps: Diplomats and International Cooperation from Westphalia to Maastricht (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dávila, Jerry. Hotel Trópico: O Brasil e o desafio da descolonisação africana, 1950-1980 (São Paulo: Paz e Terra, 2011).

  • de Camargo Lima, Rodolfo and Amâncio Jorge Silva Nunes de Oliveira. ‘Manutenção e mudanças no Ministério das Relações Exteriores: Perfis do corpo diplomático e padrões na carreira’. Revista de Administração Pública 52 (5) (2008), 797-821.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DeConde, Alexander. Ethnicity, Race and Foreign Policy: A History (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1992).

  • Department of Personnel and Training, Government of India. 2019a. https://cseplus.nic.in/Home/MiscInfo.

  • Department of Personnel and Training, Government of India. 2019b. http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=163297.

  • Elections Department Singapore. Types of Electoral Divisions. 28 August 2017. https://www.eld.gov.sg/elections_type_electoral.html.

  • Embassy of India to Saudi Arabia. 2019. http://www.indianembassy.org.sa/about-us/ambassador/previous-ambassadors-to-the-kingdom-of-saudi-arabia.

  • Embassy of India to UAE. 2019. http://www.indembassyuae.gov.in/eoi.php?id=Previous.

  • Época, 26 November 2011.

  • Fan, Ying. ‘Branding the Nation: Towards a Better Understanding’. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy 6 (2) (2010), 97-103.

  • Folha de São Paulo, 22 January 2005.

  • Folha de Sao Paulo, 6 January 2011. https://www1.folha.uol.com.br/fsp/mundo/ft0601201107.htm.

  • Garg, V.K., ed. Caste and Reservation in India (New Delhi: Alpha, 2010).

  • Hill, Christopher. ‘Bringing War Home: Foreign Policy-Making in Multicultural Societies’. International Relations 21 (3) (2007), 259-283.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Istituto Rio Branco. ‘Concurso de Admissao A Carreira de Diplomata’. Diario Oficial da Uniao 129 (8 July 2019), 120-127.

  • Koh, Tommy. ‘China’s Perception of Singapore: Four Areas of Misunderstanding’. The Straits Times, 21 October 2016. https://www.straitstimes.com/opinion/chinas-perception-of-singapore-4-areas-of-misunderstanding.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Krenn, Michael L. Black Diplomacy: African Americans and the State Department 1945-1969. (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1999).

  • Lequesne, Christian. Ethnographie du Quai d’Orsay: Les pratiques des diplomates français (Paris: Editions du CNRS, 2017).

  • Lequesne, Christian and Jean Heilbronn. ‘Senior Diplomats in the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs’. The Hague Journal of Diplomacy 7 (3) (2012), 269-286.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Levaillant, Melissa. Le ministère des Affaires étrangères indien (1947-2015): La production d’une diplomatie sous-dimentionnée, Doctoral Thesis (Sciences Po, Institut d’études politiques de Paris, 2016).

  • Ministério das Relações Exteriores. Edital de abertura: CACD (Brasília: Ministério das Relações Exteriores, 2018).

  • Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. 2006. ‘Social, Economic and Educational Status of the Muslim Community of India’. http://www.minorityaffairs.gov.in/sites/default/files/sachar_comm.pdf.

    • Export Citation
  • Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. 2019. http://www.minorityaffairs.gov.in/schemesperformance/support-students-clearing-prelims-conducted-upscsscstate-public-service-commissionpsc-etc.

  • Nassif, Luis. ‘Cotas racias; decisao do Itamaraty gera polêmica’. GGN, 30 December 2010. https://jornalggn.com.br/blog/luisnassif/cotas-raciais-decisao-do-itamaraty-gera-polemica.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • National Heritage Board. Singapore: The Encyclopedia (Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, 2006).

  • Neumann, Iver. At Home with Diplomats: Inside a European Foreign Ministry (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2012).

  • Neumann, Iver B. and Halvard Leira. Aktiv og Avventende: Utenrikstjenestens liv 1905-2005 (Oslo: Pax, 2005).

  • Okoth Opondo, Sam. ‘Decolonising diplomacy: reflections on African estrangement and exclusion’. In Sustainable Diplomacies, eds. Costas M. Constantitnou and James Der Derian (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), 109-127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rana, Kishan S. Asian Diplomacy: The Foreign Ministries of China, India, Japan, Singapore, Thailand (Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2009).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rocha, Zarine, ‘Multiplicity within Singularity: Racial Categorisation and Recognising Mixed Race in Singapore’. Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs 30 (3) (2011), 95-131.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shaban, Abdul. Lives of Muslims in India: Politics, Exclusion and Violence (New Delhi: Routledge, 2016).

  • Shain, Yossi. ‘Ethnic Diasporas and US Foreign Policy’. Political Science Quarterly 109 (5) (1994-1995), 811-841.

  • Sharp, Paul. Diplomatic Theory of International Relations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009).

  • Shashi Tharorr for IFS Test’. The Telegraph, 21 October 2017. https://www.telegraphindia.com/india/shashi-for-ifs-test/cid/1325009.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sofer, Sasson. ‘The Diplomat as a Stranger’. Diplomacy and Statecraft 8 (3) (1997), 179-186.

  • Sousa Dantas, Raimundo. Africa Dificil (Missão Condenada: Diário) (Rio de Janeiro: Editora Leitura, 1965).

  • Supremo Tribunal Federal. Ação Declaratória de Constitucionalidade n. 42. Decisão Final (Brasília: STF, 2017).

  • Yap, Shiwen. ‘Unfair Discrimination of Malays in National Service’. The Citizen Online, 30 January 2012. https://www.theonlinecitizen.com/2012/01/30/unfair-discrimination-of-malays-in-national-service/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 239 239 30
Full Text Views 286 285 9
PDF Downloads 111 111 3