Leviathans Restrained: International Politics for Artificial Persons

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This essay challenges the analogy argument. The analogy argument aims to show that the international domain satisfies the conditions of a Hobbesian state of nature: There fails to be a super-sovereign to keep all in awe, and hence, like persons in the state of nature, sovereigns are in a war every sovereign against every sovereign. By turning to Hobbes’ account of authorization, however, we see that subjects are under no obligation to obey a sovereign’s commands when doing so would contradict the very end that motivated the authorization of the sovereign in the first place. There is thus an important disanalogy between natural and artificial persons, and this accordingly produces different reactions to the state of nature.

Leviathans Restrained: International Politics for Artificial Persons

in Hobbes Studies

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References

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R. Prokhovnik and G. Slomp eds.International Political Theory after Hobbes: Analysis Interpretation and Orientation (New York: Palgrave Macmillan2010) 13fn1. The standard account of historical realism in international relations textbooks often begins by mentioning Thucydides and Machiavelli but primarily focuses on Hobbes. Sutch and Elias (2007 45–46) and Steans et al (2010 56–57) are good examples.

5

M. SmithRealist Thought from Weber to Kissinger (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press1986) 13.

9

BeitzPolitical Theory and International Relations35.

12

M. W. DoyleWays of War and Peace: Realism Liberalism and Socialism (New York: W. W. Norton & Company1997) 116.

13

G. NeweyRoutledge Philosophy Guidebook to Hobbes and Leviathan (New York: Routledge2008) 172.

15

 See BeitzPolitical Theory and International Relations32; Hoffmann The State of War: Essays on the Theory and Practice of International Politics 65; Newey Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Hobbes and Leviathan 161; M. Walzer Just and Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument with Historical Illustrations 4th ed. (New York: Basic Books 2006) 4. Hannah Arendt for example criticizes this picture of Hobbesian international relations arguing that it serves as a justification for aggressive imperialism see H. Arendt The Origins of Totalitarianism (New York: Harcourt Brace & Co. 1994) 142–45.

16

 See J. DonnellyRealism and International Relations (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press2004) 30; Newey Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Hobbes and Leviathan 168.

38

B. GertHobbes: Prince of Peace (Cambridge: Polity Press2010) 132.

39

MalcomAspects of Hobbes443.

40

L. MayLimiting Leviathan: Hobbes on Law and International Affairs (Oxford: Oxford University Press2013) 161.

47

P. T. KingThomas Hobbes: Politics and Law (New York: Taylor & Francis1993) 449.

48

A. P. MartinichHobbes (New York: Routledge2005) 91.

49

 See also DonnellyRealism and International Relations102; Gert Hobbes: Prince of Peace 132.

53

S. A. LloydMorality in the Philosophy of Thomas Hobbes: Cases in the Law of Nature (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press2009) 29; Williams The Realist Tradition and the Limits of International Relations 40–41. A subject could of course perform acts that conflicted with the end that motivated the formation of the sovereign – e.g. fight in a dangerous war. However performing such acts would be for her own reasons and not because of an obligation to the sovereign. I thank an anonymous referee for urging me to clarify this point.

66

BeitzPolitical Theory and International Relations32.

70

 See FlathmanThomas Hobbes: Skepticism Individuality and Chastened Politics110; H. Patapan "The Glorious Sovereign: Thomas Hobbes on Leadership and International Relations" in British International Thinkers from Hobbes to Namier ed. I. Hall and L. Hill (New York: Palgrave Macmillan 2009) 15; Williams The Realist Tradition and the Limits of International Relations 42–43.

71

WendtSocial Theory of International Politics265.

72

WarrenderThe Political Philosophy of Hobbes: His Theory of Obligation119.

76

HobbesA Dialogue between a Philosopher and a Student of the Common Laws of England57.

78

 See also LloydMorality in the Philosophy of Thomas Hobbes: Cases in the Law of Nature35; Malcom Aspects of Hobbes 448.

81

HobbesA Dialogue between a Philosopher and a Student of the Common Laws of England159.

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