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References

* This report is an updated version of the report published by the Netherlands Institute of Human Rights (SIM) titled: 'Human Rights in Suriname 1992-1994'. SIM Special, No. 14, Utrecht 1994. A Dutch version of that report was published by Moiwana '86 in October 1994. Suriname was last covered in the 1991 Yearbook.

I UN Doc. CCPR/C/4/Add.4, 10 May 1979. 2 UN Doc. E/1990/5/Add.20, 2 February 1994. 3 UN Doc. HRI/CORE/1/Add.39, 7 February 1994. 4 Adhin, 1994, pp. 20-29.

5 Regeringsverklaring 1991-1996 [Government Statement 1991-19961, 1992. 6 UN Doc. HRI/CORE/l/Add.39, p. 20.

7 Marshall, 1993, pp. 22-35.

8 Interview by the author with the Minister of Justice and Police, Mr. S. Girjasing, Paramaribo 12 April 1994.

9 Since the 1980 coup d'etat the relationship between Suriname and the Netherlands has been strained. For an analysis of this relationship see Marten Schalkwijk, Suriname het steentje in de Nederlandse schoen: van onafhankelijkheid tot Raamverdrag [Suriname the Pebble in the Dutch Shoe: From Independence to the 1992 Treatyl, Paramaribo 1994; Edward Dew, The Trouble in Suriname (1975-1993), Greenwood 1995. 10 Nowak/Swinehart, 1989, pp. 357-358; Andreassen/Swinehart, 1992, pp. 294-300.

" De Ware Tijd, 18 October 1994, p. 1. 'z De West, 26 November 1994, p. 3, 13 December 1994, p. 1, 19 December 1994, p. 1, 21 December 1994, p. 1. '3 De Ware Tijd, 28 December 1994, p. 1.

14 De West, 29 November 1994, p. 1. 15 De Ware Tijd, 2 January 1995, p. 1.

16 Ibidem, 13 September 1993, pp. 1-2. 17 Ibidem, 1 December 1993, p. 1.

'8 Ibidem, 29 October 1994, p. 2. 19 Onafhankelijke Weekkrant Suriname, 22 December 1994, p. 2. 20 M86 Nieuwsbrief, July/August 1994, pp. 5-8. 21 Amnesty International, 1994. 22 De Ware Tijd, 8 September 1993, p. 1. 23 M86 Nieuwsbrief, September 1994, pp. 2-6.

24 United Nations Human Rights Committee, 'Communications Nos. 146/1983, 148-154/1983, Baboeram et al. vs. Suriname', A/40/40, 1985. 25 UN Doc. E/CN.4/1985/17, Annex V. 26 OAS, 1983, pp. 25-34. 27 Among others Moiwana '86, OGV, Amnesty International and the Dutch Section of the International Commission of Jurists. 28 Inter-American Court of Human Rights, 10 September 1993.

29 Ibidem, 21 January 1994. '° Andreassen/Swinehart, 1992, p. 302. 31 Moiwana '86 Human Rights Organisation Suriname, 1990-1995. 'z US Department of State, 1994, p. 552. " Ibidem.

'° UN Doc. HRI/CORE/l/Add.39, p. 20. 'S M86 Nieuwsbrief, September 1994, pp. 2-6. '6 De West, 4 January 1994, p. 1.

37 Criminal Law Code, Article 50. '8 European Court of Human Rights, Brogan and Others, Judgment of 29 November 1988, Series A, No. 145-B. " Cremers, 1993. 40 De West, 4 January 1995, p. 1.

41 Moiwana '86 Human Rights Organisation Suriname, 1990-1995.

°z Figures provided by the Algemeen Bureau voor de Statistiek [General Bureau of Statistics], 1995. °3 Europa Publications Limited, 1993, p. 567. 44 Economist Intelligence Unit, p. 35.

45 Figures provided by the Algemeen Bureau voor de Statistiek [General Bureau of Statisticsl, I, 1995. 46 Coopers and Lybrand Deloitte, 1990. 47 Warwick Research Institute, 1992. 48 Economist Intelligence Unit, 1993, p. 38.

49 De West, 10 December 1994, p. 1. 50 Ibidem, 25 May 1994, p. 1.

51 Ibidem, 7 June 1994, p. 1. 52 Inter-American Development Bank, 1993. 53 Figure provided by Marein van Schaijk, economist, January 1995.

sa Moiwana '86 Human Rights Organisation Suriname, 1990-1995. ss De Ware Tijd, 9 November 1994, p. 1. sb UN Doc. HRI/CORE/l/Add.39, p. 10. 57 Idem.

58 Moiwana '86 Human Rights Organisation Suriname, 1990-1995.

59 Interview by the author with C. Ringeling from the Suriname Centrum voor Onderwijskundig Onderzoek, Toezicht en Opleiding [Surinamese Centre for Educational Research, Supervision and Trainingl, Paramaribo 1994. 60 Interview by the author with Mr. G. Hiwat Minister of Education, Paramaribo 21 April 1994. 61 Idem.

62 UN Doc. HRI/CORE/1/Add.39, p. 11. 63 Idem. 64 TUKA, Vol. 1, No. 1, p. 2. 65 Interview by the author with Ms. H. Malberg from the Consult Onderzoek en Advisering op Cultureel Gebied [Consult, Research and Consultation in the Field of Culturel, Paramaribo April 1994. 66 ProHealth, 1993.

67 Interview by the author with Ms. R. Day from the Bureau Familierechtelijke Zaken [Bureau for Family Affairs], Paramaribo 15 November 1994. 68 Interview by the author with Ms. B. Meilof from the Crisiscentrum voor het kind [Centre for Children in Crisis], Paramaribo 13 April 1994.

69 Interview by the author with Father de Becker from the Pater Albrinck Stichting [Pater Albrinck Foundation], Paramaribo 19 April 1994.

Adhin, J., 'Opvattingen over het Constitutionele Hof: Enkele Opmerkingen' [Views about the Constitutional Court: Some Remarks], Surinaams Juristenblad [Surinamese Law Journal], February 1994.

Algemeen Bureau voor de Statistiek [General Bureau of Statistics], Paramaribo January 1995.

Amnesty International, 'Suriname', Amnesty International Yearbook 1993, London 1994.

Andreassen, B.-A., T. Swinehart (eds.), Human Rights in Developing Countries, 1991 Yearbook, Kehl 1992.

Coopers and Lybrand Deloitte, 'A Programme for the Adjustment and Structural Adaption in Suriname', Brussels December 1990.

Cremers, P.H., 'Mensenrechten als Fundament voor een Democratische Rechtsstaat' [Human Rights as the Basis for a Democratic Constitutional State], Paramaribo 23 November 1993.

Criminal Law Code, Paramaribo 1984.

Dew, E., The Trouble in Suriname (1975-1993), Greenwood 1995.

Economist Intelligence Unit, Country Profile 1993-1994, London 1993.

Europa Publications Limited, South America, Central America and the Caribbean 1993, Fourth edition, London 1993.

European Court of Human Rights, Brogan and Others, Judgment of 29 November 1988, Series A, No. 145-B.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Aloeboetoe et al. Case, Judgment of 10 September 1993, Human Rights Law Journal, Vol. 14, 1993.

Inter-American Court of Human Rights, Gangaram Panday Case, Judgment of 21 January 1994.

International Development Bank, Economic and Social Progress in Latin America, Washington DC 1993.

Marshall, 'Moiwana '86 versus de Staat Suriname, Rechtsbescherming tegen de Overheid. Een annotatie van een kort geding vonnis', [Moiwana '86 versus the State of Suriname, Legal Protection against the Government. An Annotated Verdict], Surinaams Juristenblad [Surinamese Law Journal], December 1993.

M86 Nieuwsbrief [Bi-monthly Newsletter on Human Rights], Paramaribo 1994.

Moiwana '86 Human Rights Organisation Suriname, press releases, statements and unpublished information, Paramaribo, 1990-1995.

Regeringsverklaring [General Policy Statement] 1991-1996, 15 January 1992.

Nowak, M., T. Swinehart (eds.), Human Rights in Developing Countries, 1989 Yearbook, Kehl 1990.

OAS, Report on the Situation of Human Rights in Suriname, OAS/Ser.L/II.61, Doc. 6 rev. 1, Washington DC 1983.

Onafhankelijke Weekkrant Suriname [Independent Weekly on Suriname], Rijswijk 1994.

ProHealth, 'Geweld tegen Vrouwen in Suriname, verslag van een onderzoek bij EHBO en politie' [Violence against Women in Suriname, an Inquiry at First Aid Units and the Police], Paramaribo December 1993.

Schalkwijk, M., Suriname het steentje in de Nederlandse schoen: van onafhankelijkheid tot Raamverdrag [Suriname the Pebble in the Dutch Shoe: From Independence to the 1992 Treaty], Paramaribo 1994.

Tuka, Vol. 1, No. 1, Paramaribo March 1994.

United Nations, Consideration of Reports Submitted by State Parties under Article 40 of the Covenant, Doc. CCPR/C/4/Add.4, 10 May 1979.

United Nations, Report by the Special Rapporteur on Summary and Arbitrary Executions, Doc. E/CN.4/1985/17, Annex V, 1985.

United Nations, Initial Reports Submitted by State Parties under Articles 16 and 17 of the Covenant, Doc. E/1990/5/Add.20, 2 February 1994.

United Nations, Core Document Forming Part of the Report of States Parties, Doc. HRI/CORE/1/Add.39, 7 February 1994.

United Nations Human Rights Committee, 'Communications Nos. 146/1983 and 148-154/1983, Baboeram-Adkin et al. vs. Suriname,' Report of the Human Rights Committee, Doc. A/40/40, 1985.

US Department of State, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1993, Washington DC 1994.

De Ware Tijd [Daily Newspaper], Paramaribo 1993-1994.

Warwick Research Institute, Republic of Suriname, Rehabilitation, Growth & Structural Adjustment: The Social Programme, June 1992.

De West [Daily Newspaper], Paramaribo 1994-1995.

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