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References

. Zimbabwe was last reported on in the 1991 edition of the Yearbook.

I The Insider (Harare), 25 March 1997, distributed via Africa News Online.

2 UN doc. HRI/CORE/l/Add.55, 27 June 1995. 3 UN doc. CERD/C/217/Add.l, 18 May 1995. For the summary records of the considerations of this report, see UN docs CERD/C/SR.1131-1132. The concluding observations of the treaty committee are issued in UN doc. CERD/C/304/Add.3, 28 March 1996. 4 UN doc. CRC/C/3/Add.35, 12 September 1995. 5 UN doc. E/1990/5/Add.28, 25 September 1995. 6 ILOLEX, 1996. See also UN doc. E/1990/5/Add.28, para. 19. 7 Government of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe's 2"' and 3"' Report in terms of Article 62 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights; and UN doc. E/1990/5/Add.28, para. 15 and 49. Conventions being considered include, inter alia, the Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention, 1958 (No. Ill); the Employment Policy Convention, 1964 (No. 122); the Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organize Convention, 1948 (No. 87), and Right to Organize and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949 (No. 98). 8 For the report, see 12 African Commission Report (1992), pp. 131-143. A summary of the examinations of the state report of Zimbabwe can also be retrieved online at http://www.umn.edu/humanrts/achpr/sess 12-complete.htm#Zimbabwe.

9 See Legal Forum, Vol. 8. No. 4, pp. 7-11. The report was due to be submitted to the African Commission at its session in Mauritius in 1996, but Zimbabwe was not formally invited and thus did not attend and present its report. At the next meeting of the Commission six months later, the report was presented, but due to a breakdown in communications, no Zimbabwean NGOs were invited, including the LRF. 10 Statement by the trustees of the Legal Resources Foundation, in Legal Forum, Vol. 8, No. 3, p. 3-4. " Nherere, 1995, p. 41. 12 See for example New African, March 1996, p. 21: "Zimbabwe: Call for constitutional reform"

13 Amnesty International, 1997. A similar appeal was expressed in Amnesty International, 1994. 14 Freedom in the World, 1996. 15 Weekfy Mail & Guardian, 22 December 1995, obtained online.

16 Zimbabwe Human Rights Update, No. 2, October 1996. 17 Freedom in the World, 1996. 18 EIU Country Report, I" Quarter 1997, p. 10.

19 EIU Country Report, 1" Quarter 1997; Sapa, October 20, 1996, online. 20 Sapa, October 20, 1996. Grace has long been settled in Mugabe's 43-roomed rural home in Zvimba, and has access to another five presidential residences, says John Makumbe, outspoken political scientist and chairman of the Zimbabwe chapter of Transparency International, the Bonn- based lobby group for responsible government. 21 Sapa-AFP, 2 January 1996, Lawrence Bartlett, obtained online. 22 EIU Country Report, I" Quarter 1997.

23 EIU, ls` Q. 1997. Mugabe has also been making enemies among passengers of Air Zimbabwe who have found themselves abruptly pushed off scheduled flights they were booked on because the aircraft was commandeered for presidential flights, resulting in numerous other scheduled flights cancelled, delayed or diverted, at undisclosed financial loss to the airline. (Sapa, October 20, 1996.) 24 Cited in African Rights, 1996, 40.

25 The aims and objectives of the organisation are listed in Legal Forum, Vol. 8, No. 3, p. 5. 26 Africa Information Afrique (AIA), 28 March, 1995, Richard Saunders.

27 John Makumbe, cited in Africa Information Afrique (AlA), 28 March, 1995, Richard Saunders. 28 Amnesty International, 1995; Nordlund, 1996. 29 Nordlund, 1996, pp. 165-166. 30 Africa Confidential, Vol. 36, No. 8, p. 5. 31 Human Rights Report, October 1995, p. 37. 32 Freedom in the World, 1996.

33 Inter-Parliamentary Union, online. 34 Freedom in the World, 1996. 3s Hum

36 Africa Information Afrique (AIA), 12 March 1996. 3� PANA, 3 May 1997. The MISA publication is entitled So This Is Democracy? and was officially launched in Lusaka on 3 May 1997. 38 Amnesty International, January 1995, p 12.

39 Batsell, obtained online. 40 Ibid. 41 Human Rights Report, November 1996, p. 48. 42 A 1994 media survey conducted by Research International Zimbabwe found that the Harare-based The Herald reached an average of 687,000 readers each day, while the Bulawayo-based The Chronicle was read by 249,000 people daily. ("Readership Survey Shows Zimpapers in the Lead," The Herald, 14 August 1994, p. 4.)

43 PANA, 3 May 1997. 44 Retrofit (Pvt) Ltd v Post and Telecommunications Corp & Anor, 1995 (2) ZLR 199; and Retrofit (Pvt) Ltd v Min of Information, 1995 (2) ZLR 422. as U.S. Department of State, 1997, obtained online. 46 Ibid.

47 Legal Resources Foundation, 1996, p. 9. 48 Retrofit (Pvt) Ltd v Post and Telecommunications Corp & Anor, 1995 (2) ZLR 199; and Retrofit (Pvt) Ltd v Min of Information, 1995 (2) ZLR 422. 49 Legal Resources Foundation, 1996, p. 8. 50 Several sources, including IGLHRC Action Alert (http://www.iglhrc.org/ ern_engj an96.html#zimbabwe).

51 Under the Zimbabwe penal code, male homosexual acts are illegal and punishable by a fine. Homosexuality is in itself not against the law, but you are not allowed to 'practice' it and to be prosecuted you have to be caught 'in the act'. 52 Zimbabwe Lawyers for Human Rights said in a statement of 25 July 1996: "If an organisation such as GALZ which is disapproved of by the government, no matter how strongly, is unlawfully silenced in this way, it will be a blow against the development of a human rights culture in Zimbabwe, and a dangerous precedent" (reprinted in Legal Forum, Vol. 8, No. 3, p. 4). The Catholic Commission for Justice and Peace described the government's 1996 ban on GALZ as "unjust discrimination" and ZimRights said the blanket ban was "a violation of the right to free expression and equal treatment under the law." (Weekly Mail & Cuardian, 2 August, 1996; online.) 53 For example, Amnesty International condemned the attacks on GALZ on 30 July (AI Index: AFR 46/02/96, obtained online at http://www.amnesty.org/news/1996/14600296.htm). 54 Weakly Mail & Cuardian, 22 December 1995, obtained online.

55 ibis. /�t�. 56 Weekly Mail & Guardian, 5 January 1996. 57 There is growing recognition within the United Nations of the need to address human rights violations based on sexual orientation. The 1994 Toonen decision by the UN Human Rights Committee recognised that laws which prohibit same-sex sexual acts are in violation of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Amnesty International believes that the persecution of persons for their homosexuality is a violation of their fundamental human rights and considers those imprisoned for their sexuality, or for the legitimate exercise of their right to freedom of expression and assembly, to be prisoners of conscience. 5g Weekly Mail & Guardian, 5 July 1996. 59 Interestingly, the same decision was reached on very similar grounds in cases before the courts of Tanzania and Ghana, but without reference to each others' jurisprudence (Interights Bulletin, 1996, 10, p. 84.)

60 Mail & Guardian, 12 November 1996, Pedzisai Ruhanya. 61 U.S. Department of State, 1997. 62 Amnesty International, 1994, and Amnesty International 1995.

63 Amnesty International, 1996, p. 335. 64 See UN docs. E/CN.4/1995/36, para. 429-431, E/CN.4/1996/38, para. 457-459, and E/CN.4/1997/34, para. 387-390. 65 Amnesty International, 1997.

66U.S. Department of State, 1995, 1996 and 1997. 67 African Rights, 1996, pp. 21-23. 68 African Rights, 1996.

69U.S. Department of State, 1996. 70 U.S. Department of State, 1996. 71 See Legal Forum, Vol. 9, No. 2. 72 For a critical comment on this amendment, see Statement by the trustees of the Legal Resources Foundation, 19 June 1996, reprinted in Legal Forum, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 3-4.

73 African Rights, 1996, p. 36.

74 Ibid., 1996, p. 37.

7S Ibid., 1996, p. 20. 76 Legal Resources Foundation, in Legal Forum, Vol. 8, No. 8, p. 9. 77 Rattigan & Ors v Chief Immigration Officer & Ors 1994(2) ZLR 54. 78 U.S. Department of State, 1997.

79 SouthScan, Vol. 12, No. 11, 21 March 1997, p. 86. 80 UNDP, 1997, p. 203: 1980-93 showed a negative GNP per capita annual growth rate of 0.3 percent. 81 OED Precis, No. 105, February 1996, online at http://www.worldbank.org/html/oed/pr105.htm. 82 Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe estimates.

83 UN doc. E/1990/5/Add.28, 25 September 1995, para. 9. 84 GOZ 1992, p. 141 (first report to the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights). 85 Watkins, 1995, pp. 80-81.

86 Republic of Zimbabwe, 1995, p. 22, and 1996, p. 20. 87 UNDP, 1997, p. 159; in 1987 USD. 88 Republic of Zimbabwe, 1995 and 1996. 89 UNDP, 1997, p. 191. 90 UNDP, 1997, p. 189. 91 UN doc. E/CN.4/AC.45/1995/2, para. 50.

92 Zwizwai, 1996, "Information for Economic Reform and Structural Adjustment in Zimbabwe", pp. 39-40. 93 Ibid. 94 "MPs should have been consulted, says Zikhali", The Herald, 12 February 1997, p. 7. 95 UN doc. E/1990/5/Add.28, 25 September 1995.

96 UNDP, 1997, p. 159; UNDP, 1994, p. 130; UNDP, 1996, p. 136 and UNDP, 1997, p. 147. The HDI for Zimbabwe increased from 0.386 at Independence in 1980 to 0.474 in 1992 and 0.534 in 1993, before declining to 0.513 in 1994. The life expectancy index went down from 0.47 to 0.40. 97 Poverty is defined as the inability to afford a defined basket of consumption items (food and non food) which are necessary to sustain life. Ministry of Public Service, Labour and Social Welfare, Social Development Fund, April 1996. 98 Ministry of Public Service, Labour and Social Welfare, Social Development Fund, April 1996 99 FAO-report cited by Sapa-AFP, 10 November, 1996. UNDP, 1997, p. 179. to] Inter-Ministerial Committee on SDA Monitoring and UNICEF-Harare, 1996, p. 14.

102 UNICEF (ESARO) et. al., 1996. to3 Tagwireyi and Greiner, 1994. toa Central Statistical Office, Prices, released 9 May 1997. tos Chisvo and Munro, 1994; Inter-Ministerial Committee on SDA Monitoring and UNICEF-Harare, 1996. 106 Auret, 1995. UN doc. E/1990/5/Add.28, 25 September 1995, para. 100-101; and Auret,1995. 108 Ibid., para. 102-103. 109 Ibid., para. 105.

110 Auret, 1995, pp. 70-75; "ZimRights condemns rounding up of squatters", The Herald, 20 February 1997. In 1994, 110.000 people were reportedly living in squatter settlements in and around Harare alone (Sunday Mail, 23 October 1994, cited in Auret, 1995, p. 1.) Auret, 1994; and Auret, 1995. Zimbabwe Human Rights Update, No. 2, 1996. The Herald, 20 February 1997: "ZimRights condemns rounding up of squatters" 114 UN doc. E/1990/5/Add.28, 25 September 1995, para. 6.

115 Blaustein and Flanz, eds.. Constitutions of the Countries of the World, "Republic of Zimbabwe Supplement" Human Rights Report, June 1996, p. 46. Human Rights Report, December 1996, pp. 27-28.

Freedom in the World, 1996. 119 U.S. Department of State, 1997. 120 UN doc. E/1990/5/Add.28, 25 September 1995, para. 46. 121 Employment Act of 1980 and the Labour Relations Act of 1985. 122 Zwizwai, 1996, pp. 41-42.

UN doc. E/1990/5/Add.28, 25 September 1995, para. 20-26. 124 Ibid., para. 35-36. 125 ibid., para. 38-45. Ibid., para. 60-66. 127 Ibid., para. 17.

128 Zwizwai, 1996, p. 43. 129 2end and 3rd Report to the African Commission on Human and Peoples Rights, p. 20. i3o Sapa-AFP, 2 January 1996, Lawrence Bartlett; obtained online. Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions (ZCTU) economist Godfrey Kanyenze, cited in AIA, 25 April 1996, Charles Rukuni, online. �3z OED Precis, No. 105, February 1996, online at http://www.worldbank.org/html/oed/pr105.htm. i33 UN doc. E/CN.4/AC.45/1995/2, para. 53.

Chisvo and Munro, 1994. 135 Inter-Ministerial Committee on SDA Monitoring and UNICEF-Harare, 1996, p. 13. i36 UNICEF (ESARO) et. al., 1996. Chisvo and Munro, 1994.

138 OED Precis, No. 105, February 1996, online at http://www.worldbank.org/html/oed/pr105.htm. tj9 UNDP, 1991, p. 120; UNDP, 1994, p. 137; UNDP, 1996, p. 136; and UNDP, 1997, p. 147. 140 UNDP, 1997, p. 170. Figures from the CIA World Factbook 1995 estimate that for 1995 life expectancy at birth is 43.0 years for females and 39.7 for males (obtained online via 1nterGO Communications at http://www.InterGO.com/Library/...). ). 141 PANA, 26 February 1997, Elliot Mahende: "Population Report Send Shock Waves in Zimbabwe", obtained online. taz According to estimates by the Ministry of Health and Child Welfare, cited by PANA, 26 February 1997, Elliot Mahende: "Population Report Send Shock Waves in Zimbabwe", obtained online. ta3 UNDP, 1997, p. 177.

144 Chisvo and Munro, 1994. ia5 Speak Out, No. 35, June/July 1996. 146 Minister of Health and Child Welfare, Dr. T. Stamps, cited in Parade, July 1996, p. 9. quarterly Economic and Statistical Review, Vol. 17, No. 3, September 1996, p. S52, table 8.1. 1. 148 2end and 3rd Report to the African Commission on Human and Peoples Rights, p. 22. 149 UNDP, 1997, p. 165; UNDP, 1994, p. 133. iso UNDP, 1997, p. 175; UNDP, 1994, p. I51. 1.

tst Quarterly Digest of Statistics, March 1996, p. 3, tables 3.2 and 3.3. 152 UN doc. E/1990/5/Add.28, 25 September 1995, para. 165; and 2"° and 3,d Report to the African Commission, p. 28. t53 Encyclopaedia Britannica. Macropaedia, 1995, online. tsa Quarterly Digest of Statistics, March 1997, p. 4, table 3.7. The figures of the UNDP Human Development Reports calculate reported AIDS cases in 1995 to be 118.6 per 100,000 people, compared to 33.5 three years earlier. (UNDP, 1997, p. 177; UNDP, 1994, p. 153.) t55 Sapa-AFP, 2 January ]996, Lawrence Bartlett, obtained online. tsb Parade, July 1996, p. 9. 157 UNICEF Harare, 1996, online. tsa Sapa, 3] October 1996.

159 UN doc. E/1990/5/Add.28, 25 September 1995, para. 189 and 192. 160 Ibid., para. 190-191. Chisvo and Munro, 1994. 162 UN doc. E/1990/5/Add.28, 25 September 1995, para. 236. 163 2end and 3rd Report to the African Commission on Human and Peoples Rights, p. 34. i64 See for example the 1991 Yearbook report on Zimbabwe by Samnoy, 1992. 165 UNDP, 1997, p. 167. 166 Chisvo and Munro, 1994.

167 UN doc. E/1990/5/Add.28, 25 September 1995, para. 227. 168 Ibid., para. 219. 2nd and 3rd Report to the African Commission on Human and Peoples Rights, p. 34. 00 �bid., p. 39. lbid., p. 34. 172 Inter-Ministerial Committee on SDA Monitoring and UNICEF-Harare, 1996, p. 15.

UN doc. E/1990/5/Add.28, 25 September 1995, para. 29. See the Government's initial report under CERD (UN doc. CERD/C/217/Add.l, para 55) and the Concluding Observations by the Committee (UN doc. CERD/C/304/Add.3, para. 13). Minister of Health and Child Welfare, Dr. T. Stamps, cited in Parade, July 1996, p. 9. Alice Armstrong, cited in PANA, 20 April, 1997: "Culture to Blame For Spate Of Sexual Assaults"

See Shenje-Peyton, 1996. U.S. Department of State, 1997, obtained online. Inter Press Service, "Zimbabwe-Human Rights: Revealing the 'Perfect Crime"', by Shehnilla Mohamed, 27 April 1997. 180 UNICEF (ESARO) et. al., 1996, obtained online. 181 UNDP, 1996, p. 139; 1993 or "latest available year" Ibid., p. 142. UNDP, 1997, p. 173. PANA, 11 April 1997, obtained online.

185UNDP, 1996, p. 142; "latest available year" Ministry of Public Service, Labour and Social Welfare. Social Development Fund, April 1996, p. 79. 187UNICEF in Zimbabwe, obtained online. Legal Forum, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1996. 189 UN doc. CERD/C/304/Add.3.

i9o International Press Service (IPS), "Zimbabwe-children: child labour takes on tragic proportions", obtained online at Http://www.link.no/IPS/art/eng/serv/AF/95/06/16/11:39 034.html; and Human Rights Report, May 1996, p. 47. 191 World of Work (June/July 1996), cited in Moto, October 1996, p. 17. International Press Service (IPS), "Zimbabwe-children: child labour takes on tragic proportions", obtained online at Http://www.link.no/IPS/art/eng/serv/AF/95/06/16/11:39_034.html. t93 UN doc. E/1990/5/Add.28, 25 September 1995, para. 37. 194 UNICEF (ESARO) et. al., 1996, obtained online. 195 Mphondah, 1996. UNICEF in Zimbabwe, obtained online. UNICEF (ESARO) et. al., 1996, obtained online.

198Tagwireyi and Greiner, 1994. 199 UNICEF (ESARO) et. al., 1996, obtained online. 200 U.S. Department of State, 1997, obtained online.

L1N doc. CERD/C/304/Add.3, para. 12 and 14. z°2 "Ndebele thunder rumbles", New African, May 1994, p. 42; "Disillusion over Zimbabwe elections", New African, May 1995, p. 32.

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