Damage and Redress in the Jurisprudence of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (1979-2001)

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1 European Court of Human Rights (hereinafter, "the European Court"), established by the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, as amended by Protocol 11, entered into force on 1 November 1998 (hereinafter, "the European Convention"). 2 Inter-American Court of Human Rights (hereinafter, "the Court", "the Tribunal" or "the Inter-American Court"): established by the American Convention on Human Rights ("the American Convention"). For the full text of the Convention, vid, OAS (Organisation of American States), Basic documents pertaining to human rights in the Inter-American System (updated to January 2000), OAS/Ser.L/V/1.4 Rev. 7, Washington, D.C., General Secretariat of the Organisation of American States, 2000 (hereinafter, "Inter-American Basic Documents"). 3 A third institution, the African Court of Human and Peoples' Rights (hereinafter, "the African Court"), created by the Protocol to the African Charter of Human and Peoples' Rights, opened for signature on June 8, 1998 during the 34`h Summit of the OAU, has not yet been formally installed. 4 While both organs have been vested with the authority to protect human rights, it must be noted that their mandate is restricted to a catalogue of rights protected in instruments that encompass mainly rights of a civil and political nature. Article 19.6 of the Protocol of San Salvador restricts the possibility to seek redress before the Inter- American machinery of protection to the violation of the rights to unionise (art. 8.1 of the Protocol) and to education (art. 13 of the Protocol). Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights in the Area of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights "Protocol of San Salvador", in Inter-American Basic Documents, op cit. supra note 2, p. 67.

5 American Convention, Article 63(1), in Inter-American Basic Documents, op cit. supra note 2. 6 American Convention, Article l(l), in Inter-American Basic Documents, op cit. supra note 2. 7 American Convention, Arts. 46, al. l.b and 2.b., in Inter-American Basic Documents, op cit. supra note 2. 8 Rules of Procedure 2001 of the Inter-American Court, Art. 23, read in conjunction with Art.2.23; in www.cidh.oas.org/basicos/basicl8.htm (hereinafter, "Rules of Court 2001 ").

9 Rules of Court 2001, op. cit. supra note 8, Art. 2.31. 10 The inclusion of their "duly accredited representatives'' does not modify substantially this situation. " Rules of Court 2001, op. cit. supra note 8, Art. 2.15. A fourth concept, that of "petitioner", is relevant when considering the procedure before the Inter-American Commission. However, since the instant study is limited to rulings of the Court, this topic is not of much relevance for us at this stage. This is an interpretation that coincides with the definition laid out in the Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power. See United Nations General Assembly Resolution 40/34 of 29 November 1985, cited in Economic and Social Council of the Organisation of the United Nations (ECOSOC), Study concerning the right to restitution, compensation and rehabilitation for victims of gross violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms, Final report submitted by Mr. Theo van Boven, Special Rapporteur, E/CN.4/Sub.2/1993/8, p. 40 (hereinafter, "van Boven Study"), p. 8. '3 Vid, inter alia, I/A Court H.R., Loayza Tamayo Case. Reparations (Art. 63(I) of the American Convention on Human Rights), Judgement of 27 November 1998. Series C No. 42 (hereinafter "Loayza Tamayo Reparations"), para. 88. An exception to this principle may be, however, found in the cryptic judgement on the merits of the Blake case, in which the Court declared the violation of several articles of the Convention to the detriment of Mr. Nicholas Blake, but failed to order reparations in relation to these violations. Instead, the Court ordered the payment of reparations to his family. I/A Court H.R., Blake Case, Judgement of 24 January 1998. Series C No. 36 (hereinafter "Blake Merits"), para. 122.

14 I/A Court H.R., Aloeboetoe et al. Case. Reparations (Art. 63(I) of the American Convention on Human Rights), Judgement of 10 September 1993. Series C No.15 (hereinafter "Aloeboetoe Reparations"), para. 54; I/A Court H.R., Garrido and Baigorria Case. Reparations (Art. 63(I) of the American Convention on Human Rights), Judgement of 27 August 1998. Series C No. 39 (hereinafter "Garrido and Baigorria Reparations"), para. 50; I/A Court H.R., Castillo Paez Case. Reparations (Art. 63(j) of the American Convention on Human Rights). Judgement of 27 November 1998. Series C No. 43 (hereinafter "Castillo Paez Reparations"), para. 54. This principle has also been incorporated into the Regulations of the Inter-American Commission and the Inter- American Court. Cf. Regulations of the Inter-American Commission, in Inter-American Basic Documents, op cit. supra note 2, Art. 41.5. 5 Under this line of interpretation, "beneficiary" is utilised as a synonym of "successor" I/A Court H.R., Neira Alegria et al. Case. Reparations (Art. 63(1) of the American Convention on Human Rights), Judgement of 19 September 1996. Series C No. 29 (hereinafter "Neira Alegria et Al. Reparations"), paras. 61 and 62. 16 I/A Court H.R., Godinez Cruz Case. Reparations (Art. 63(1) of the American Convention on Human Rights), Judgement of 21 July 1989. Series C No. 8 (hereinafter "Godinez Cruz Reparations"), para. 29. 17 I/A Court H.R., Velasquez Rodriguez Case. Reparations (Art. 63(l) of the American Convention on Human Rights), Judgement of 21 July 1989. Series C No. 7 (hereinafter "Velasquez Rodriguez Reparations"), para. 54. The pronouncement was made by virtue of a clause in the agreement on reparations between Honduras and the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, in which it was established that "the children shall be recognised as beneficiaries as soon as they fulfil the prerequisites of Honduran Law to be considered the legal heirs of [the victim]". Ib., par. 5. In the Garrido and Baigorria Case, one of the victims had two children bom out of wedlock, and the Court established that recognition, not necessarily sufficient in domestic law, was a valid evidence of kinship before the regional tribunal. Garrido and Baigorria reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, paras. 55 and 56. 18 Velasquez Rodriguez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 17, para. 54. Cf. I/A Court H.R., Gangaram Panday Case. Judgement of 21 January 1994. Series C No. 16 (hereinafter "Gangaram Panday Merits"), para. 69, in which the Court declared a nominal compensatory amount for an illegal detention and since the victim was deceased - declared directly the victim's spouse and his children (if any) as his heirs in this payment. Further, cf. I/A Court H.R., Caballero Delgado and Santana Case. Reparations (Art. 63(l) of the American Convention on Human Rights), Judgement of 29 January 1997.

Series C No. 31 (hereinafter "Caballero Delgado and Santana Reparations"), para. 44, for a case in which the Court sets the evidentiary standard for the determination of kinship. 19 Undoubtedly, the circumstances of the Aloeboetoe case and its setting in a Saramaka community in which custom - rather than Surinamese law - was effectively enforced, compelled the Court to this exercise. The principle bears relevance in a continent in which indigenous communities continue to effectively enforce their custom, when not hindered by the State. 20 Such rules being: a) that a person's successors are her children; b) that the spouse has a share in the assets acquired during a marriage and can qualify as successor; and c) that in the absence of spouse or children, ascendants are heirs. It must be noted that, in interpreting the terms "children", "spouse", and "ascendants", the Court took Saramaka custom into account, insofar as it did not contradict the American Convention. Aloeboetoe reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 62. Cf. I/A Court H.R., El Amparo Case. Reparations (Art. 63(l) of the American Convention on Human Rights), Judgement of 14 September 1996. Series C No. 28 (hereinafter "El Amparo Reparations"), para. 40, for a case in which division of compensation between a civil spouse and a common-law spouse reinforces the flexible nature of the Court's appreciation of these matters. 21 Aloeboetoe Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, paras. 54 and 68. 22 A community composed of descendants of black African slaves who fled from their Dutch owners. z3 Aloeboetoe Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 76; cf. Castillo Paez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 88.

24 Garrido and Baigorria Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 50. 25 In the cited case, such a group comprised the victim's children, her parents, and her siblings. Loayza Tamayo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 13, para. 92, read in conjunction with para. 89. 26 Loayza Tamayo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 13; paras. 140 to 143. 27 I/A Court H.R., Suarez Rosero Case. Reparations (Art. 63(1) of the American Convention on Human Rights), Judgement of 20 January 1999 (hereinafter "Suarez Rosero Reparations"), paras. 52 and 67. z8 I/A Court H.R., Cantoral Benavides Case. Reparations (Art. 63(1) of the American Convention on Human Rights), Judgement of 18 August 2000. Series C No. 69 (hereinafter "Cantoral Benavides Reparations"), para. 60.a., and references included therein. z9 I/A Court H.R., Paniagua Morales et al. Case. Reparations (Art. 63(I) of the American Convention on Human Rights), Judgement of 25 May 2001. Series C No. 76 (hereinafter "Paniagua Morales et al. Reparations"), para. 111.

30 Paniagua Morales et al. Reparations, op. cit. supra note 29, para. 109. 31 I/A Court H.R., Castillo Paez Case, Judgement of 3 November 1997. Series C No. 34 (hereinafter "Castillo Paez Merits"), paras. 81 to 84, read in conjunction with operative paragraph 4. See also Castillo Paez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 59.

3z Blake Merits, op. cit. supra note 13, para. 97 and paras. 113 to 116. It is interesting to note that the Court qualified the burning of the mortal remains of Mr. Blake as an "assault on the cultural values prevailing in the Guatemalan society, which are handed down from generation to generation, with regard to respecting the dead" - an assault that increased his relatives' suffering. While such respect for the dead is undoubtedly a trait of Guatemalan culture, it can be safely argued that it is a value shared at regional, if not universal, level. The geographical limitation imposed by the Court seems all the more incongruous when one considers that Mr. Blake and his relatives were or are all citizens of the United States of America, not Guatemala. 33 In the cited case, the Court found that the abduction of the victims, their subsequent torment and execution, and the ineffectiveness of the judicial processes initiated constituted a violation of the personal integrity of their mothers. I/A Court H.R., Villagran Morales et Al. Case. Reparations (Art. 63(I) of the American Convention on Human Rights), Judgement of 26 May 2001. Series C No. 77 (hereinafter "Villagran Morales et Al. Reparations"), para. 177. 'a I/A Court H.R., Bamaca Velasquez Case, Judgement of 25 November 2000. Series C No. 70, para. 230.2. 3s Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power, adopted by General Assembly resolution 40/34 of 29 November 1985, available at at A.2. 3s Case N°107/1981 (Elena Quinteros Almeida and Maria del Carmen Almeida de Quinteros v. Uruguay), cited in van Boven Study, op. cit. supra note 12, p. 26. However, Special Rapporteur van Boven also registers the difficulty of distinguishing between entitlement and succession. Ib., p. 27.

3� Garrido and Baigorria Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 50; Suarez Rosero Reparations, op. cit. supra note 27, para. 67; Cantoral merits, operative points (in extenso), read in conjunction with Cantoral Benavides Reparations, op. cit. supra note 28, paras. 37 and 38. 3a In the case of the victim's father and mother-in-law, however, it is necessary to note that, while the Court "presumed" that moral damage had been inflicted to their detriment, it considered that the judgement in itself was a sufficient source of satisfaction. I/A Court H.R., Cesti Hurtado Case, Judgement of 29 September 1999. Series C No. 56, para. 56.

'9 Aloeboetoe Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 19. 40 Aloeboetoe Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 83. 41 Aloeboetoe Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, paras. 82 and 84. 42 I/A Court H.R., Mayagna (Sumo) Awas Tingni Indigenous Community Case, Judgement of 31 August 2001 (hereinafter "Mayagna (Sumo) Merits"), paras. 127 and 134.

43 Mayagna (Sumo) Merits, op. cit. supra note 42, para. 82. 44 Mayagna (Sumo) Merits, op. cit. supra note 42, para. 173 (operative points, in extenso). 45 I/A Court H.R., International Responsibility for the Promulgation and Enforcement of Laws in Violation of the Convention (Arts. I and 2 of the American Convention on Human Rights), Advisory Opinion OC-14/94 of 9 December 1994. Series A No. 14, para. 56. 46 In what concerns the obligation to investigate, prosecute, and punish, vid., infra, "Cessation"

47 Velasquez Rodriguez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 17, para. 30. Cf. Godinez Cruz Reparations, op. cit. supra note 16, para. 28; Aloeboetoe reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 44. 48 Vid, inter alia, Loayza Tamayo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 13, para. 86, and the previous jurisprudence to which the cited paragraph refers. 49 Under Inter-American Law, the international responsibility of the State is engaged solely with the violation of the Convention, regardless of the existence or not of damages. The primary obligation in this respect stems from Article 2 of the American Convention, which establishes the obligation of State Parties to adopt measures of legislative or an other nature to ensure the enjoyment of the rights protected thereunder. American Convention, Article 2, in Inter-American Basic Documents, op. cit. supra note 2, p. 28.

so Castillo Paez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 74, in which the Court held that the legally protected injury is the one "that is sufficiently substantiated to find that the injury likely occurred". Van Boven Study, op. cit. supra note 12. The criterion of proximity, also described in the international jurisprudence as "directness'' or "foreseeability", has been also commented upon by the International Law Commission, cf. Comments to the Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for internationally wrongful acts, adopted by the International Law Commission at its fifty-third session (2001) (hereinafter "Comments to DraftArticles"); Comment to Article 31, par. (9) and (10), and references therein. Aloeboetoe Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 48.

s3 Castillo Paez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 76, read in conjunction with paras. 68.B).d) and 71.c). s4 I/A Court H.R., Blake Case. Reparations (Art. 63(I) of the American Convention on Human Rights), Judgement of 22 January 1999. Series C No. 48 (hereinafter "Blake Reparations"), para. 45. ss Loayza Tamayo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 13; dissenting opinion of Judges A.A. Cancado Trindade and A. Abreu-Burelli, para. 8.

56 Aloeboetoe Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 51 (emphasis added). 57 I/A Court H.R., Paniagua Morales et al. Case, Judgement of 8 March 1998. Series C No. 37 (hereinafter "Paniagua Morales et al. Merits"), paras. 134 and 135. 58 Paniagua Morales et al. Merits, op. cit. supra note 57, para. 89.d.3). 59 Paniagua Morales et al. Reparations, op. cit. supra note 29, para. 124.

60 I/A Court H.R., Loayza Tamayo Case, Judgement of 17 September 1997. Series C No. 33 (hereinafter "Loayza Tamayo Merits"), para. 45.e., read in conjunction with Loayza Tamayo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 13, paras. 71 and 75. 61 This finding was succinctly grounded upon "the nature of this fact", rather than an examination of the standard of proof that had not been met, which evidently creates a substantial problem in relation to the protection of women under the custody of the State. Loayza Tamayo Merits, op. cit. supra note 60, para. 58. For the standard to be met for the determination of similar facts, see Eur. Court H.R., Aydin v. Turkey (57/1996/676/866), in http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/hudoc; and for a view concordant to the Court's apparent difficulties with such standards, see the dissenting and separate opinions to that Judgement. 62 Loayza Tamayo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 13, para. 106.A).i). s3 Loayza Tamayo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 13, para. 129.d). 64 Suarez Rosero Reparations, op. cit. supra note 27, para. 34.a., read in conjunction with para. 54.A)b). ss I/A Court H.R., Suarez Rosero Case, Judgement of 12 November 1997. Series C No. 35 (hereinafter "Suarez Rosero Merits"), para. 23.d., read in conjunction with Suarez Rosero Reparations, op. cit. supra note 27, para. 54.A)b). 66 Blake Merits, op. cit. supra note 13, para. 31.d). 67 Blake Reparations, op. cit. supra note 54, para. 50.

68 I/A Court H.R., Villagran Morales et al. Case, Judgement of 19 November 1999. Series C No. 63 (hereinafter "Villagran Morales et Al. Merits"), paras. 156, 158, 162 and 169. 69 One of the mothers described "a facial paralysis that resulted in a year in hospital" Villagran Morales et al. Merits, op. cit. supra note 68, para. 65.a., read in conjunction with Villagran Morales et al. Reparations, op. cit. supra note 33, para. 80. 70 Villagran Morales et Al. Reparations, op. cit. supra note 33, paras. 80 and 89. This mixture of measures is also the practice followed by the European Court, but with the important difference that this Tribunal categorises the headings of damage as "pecuniary" and "non-pecuniary" Cf. Eur. Court H.R., Ilhan v. Turkey (2000), in paras. 109 and 112. 71 via Court H.R., Durand and Ugarte Case, Judgement of 16 August 2000. Series C No. 68 (hereinafter "Durand and Ugarte Merits"), para. 43.

72 I/A Court H.R., Durand and Ugarte Case. Reparations (Art. 63(1) of the American Convention on Human Rights), Judgement of 6 August 2000. Series C No. 68 (hereinafter "Durand and Ugarte Reparations"), para. 36 '3 Expert opinion of Rodolfo Stavenhaven Gruenbaum, in Mayagna (Sumo) Merits, op. cit. supra 42; par. 83.d). (Translation by the author.) 74 Mayagna (Sumo) Merits, op. cit. supra note 42, para. 167. 'S Blake Reparations, op. cit. supra note 54, para. 20.e. 76 Loayza Tamayo Merits, op. cit. supra note 60, para. 57. " Blake Reparations, op. cit. supra note 54, para. 20.e. 78 Cantoral Benavides Reparations, op. cit. supra note 28, para. 53. 79 Loayza Tamayo Merits, op. cit. supra note 60, para. 57; cf. Blake Reparations, op. cit. supra note 54, para. 20.e. go Velasquez Rodriguez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 17, para. 51; Godinez Cruz Reparations, op. cit. supra note 16, para. 49. 81 Aloeboetoe Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 54.

82 Cour eur. D.H., arret Mori du 19 fevrier 1991, serie A n'197-C, p. 38, para. 20. Cf., inter alia, Cour eur. D.H., arret Tusa c. Italie du 27 fevrier 1992. serie A n°231-D, p. 42, para.21; Cour eur. D.H., arret Beldjoudi c. France du 26 mars 1992, serie A n°234-A, p.30, para. 86; and Cour eur. D.H., arret Kenmache c. France (article 50) du 2 novembre 1993, serie A n° 270-B, p. 16, para. 11. e3 Aloeboetoe Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 28. 84 Aloeboetoe Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 52. In the case at hand, the victims were deprived of their liberty and mistreated; some of them were tortured, made to dig their own graves, and later killed. A victim who did not die immediately bore wounds that were infested by maggots and saw the bodies of his companions being devoured by vultures. Ib., par. 51. 85 Neira Alegria et al. Reparations, op. cit. supra note 15, para. 57; Garrido and Baigorria reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 49; Castillo Paez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 86. While in both Aloeboetoe et al. and Garrido and Baigorria the Court seems to take the State's recognition of responsibility into account as an element providing grounds for this presumption, the subsequent pronouncements in Neira Alegria et al. and Castillo Paez seem to establish it as a iuris tantum presumption. Cf., further,

Blake Reparations, op. cit. supra note 54, para. 57 and Cantoral Benavides Reparations, op. cit. supra note 28, para. 60.a., and references included therein. 8 Villagran Morales et al. Reparations, op. cit. supra note 33, paras. 162 and 163. 87 Velasquez Rodriguez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 17, para. 51; Godinez Cruz Reparations, op. cit. supra note 16, para. 49. 88 In the Velksquez Rodriguez case, the Court considered psychiatric documents and testimonies that described the "symptoms of fear, anguish, depression and withdrawal, all [caused by] the disappearance of the head of the family" Velasquez Rodriguez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 17, para. 51; Godinez Cruz Reparations, op. cit. supra note 16, para. 49. 89 Loayza Tamayo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 13, para. 74. It is striking, however, that while the Court seemingly took those reports into consideration, they are not mentioned in the ruling. Instead, the Court once again relied on the presumption that moral damage is a natural derivation of the declared violations to human rights. Ib., paras. 138 to 143. 90 I/A Court H.R., Castillo Petruzzi Case, Judgement of 30 Mary 1999. Series C No. 52 (hereinafter "Castillo Petruzzi Merits"), paras. 107 to 112 and 116 to 122. Vid, particularly, paras. 129 to 134, in which the Court found a violation to the principle of competent, independent and impartial tribunal; paras. 138 to 142, in which it found a violation of the rights of defence; paras. 146 to 149, in which it found a violation of the right to legal counsel of one's choosing; paras. 153 to 156, in which it found a violation to the right to examine witnesses; paras. 160 to 162, in which it found a violation of the right to appeal to a higher court; and paras. 172 to 173, in which it found a violation of the principle of publicity of proceedings.

91 Castillo Petruzzi Merits, op. cit. supra note 90, paras. 224 and 225. It is most significant that, in this case, the Court did not open a separate procedure for reparations. 92 Suarez Rosero Merits, op. cit. supra note 65, para. 37. 93 Durand and Ugarte Merits, op. cit. supra note 71; dissenting opinion of Judge C.V. de Roux Rengifo, p. 2. The translation is mine, since the English version of the Judgement and its appendixes was not available at the time this article was completed.

94 Loayza Tamayo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 13, paras. 148 and 150. 95 Loayza Tamayo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 13; Separate Concurring Opinion of Judge Jackman. 96 A similar concept was included by Special Rapporteur van Boven in his report (van Boven Study, op. cit. supra note 12, at 57), when establishing that the "lost opportunities, including education" are valid and economically assessable headings of compensation. 97 Loayza Tamayo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 13, para. 153.

98 Castillo Paez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 93, read in conjunction with para. 74. In this case the concept of Life-Plan would have been particularly relevant, since the victim - a young Peruvian student - was killed within a phase of significant personal and professional growth. 99 Cantoral Benavides Reparations, op. cit. supra note 28, para. 60. loo Mayagna (Sumo) Merits, op. cit. supra note 42, para. 83.d). zoo At least two members of the Court have pronounced themselves in a manner that is consistent with this conclusion. In their Joint Concurrent Opinion on the merits of Villagran Morales et al., Judges Cancado Trindade and Abreu-Burelli registered the view that the State obligations on the Right to Life include the establishment of minimal conditions for a dignified life. The said case involved the abduction and execution of five "street children" who, in the view of the mentioned Judges, developed their lives "in the abjection of misery, without the minor conditions for creating their Project of Life [and who] experienced a suffering equivalent to spiritual death". Villagran Morales et al. Merits, op. cit. supra note 68; Joint Concurring Opinion of Judges Cancado Trindade and Abreu-Burelli, paras. 4 to 9.

102 Garrido and Baigorria reparations, op. cit. supra note 14; para. 48. 103 In Cantoral Benavides, the Court accepted as foreseeable that the victim, a student of Biology, would have graduated and become a biologist had he not been unlawfully detained and kept in custody, and acknowledged actual damages in this connection. Cantoral Benavides Reparations, op. cit. supra note 28, para. 49. 104 In the Blake case, the Court deemed it pertinent to request from the family, inter alia, the presentation of "a certified copy of Nicholas Blake's professional degree or an appropriate document that corroborates his academic degree" as evidence to arrive at a more informed judgement. Blake Reparations, op. cit. supra note 54, para. 16. 105 I/A Court H.R., Ivcher Bronstein Case, Judgement of 6 February 2001. Series C No. 74 (hereinafter "Ivcher Bronstein Merits"), para. 76.e). 106 Ivcher Bronstein Merits, op. cit. supra note 105, para. 181, read in conjunction with paras. 126 and 127.

107 Garrido and Baigorria Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para 61. Similar contentions were presented in Neira Alegria et al. by the State of Peru (cf. Neira Alegria et al. Reparations, op. cit. supra note 15, para. 44) and in the Suarez Rosero case by the State of Ecuador (cf. Suarez Rosero Reparations, op. cit. supra note 27, para. 18), but were rejected because of substantial reasons. 108 Blake Reparations, op. cit. supra note 54, para. 49. 109 Castillo Paez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 77. ��° El Amparo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 20, para. 17. III Cantoral Benavides Reparations, op. cit. supra 28; para. 5 I.e. 112 Loayza Tamayo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 13, para. 129.b); Castillo Paez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 77; Blake Reparations, op. cit. supra note 54, para. 50; Cantoral Benavides Reparations, op. cit. supra note 28, para. 51.a. 113 Garrido and Baigorria reparations, op. cit. supra 14, para. 79; cf. Loayza Tamayo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 13, para. 176. They include not only expenses generated directly by the representation before courts, but also peripheral measures relating to the processing of cases. For examples of such expenditures, vid. Blake Reparations, op. cit. supra note 54, para. 69. 114 Garrido and Baigorria reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 81. 115 Velasquez Rodriguez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 17, para. 42; Godinez Cruz Reparations, op. cit. supra 16, para. 40.

116 Aloeboetoe Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, paras. 113 and 114. 117 El Amparo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 20, para. 63; Neira Alegria et Al. Reparations, op. cit. supra note 15, para. 70; Caballero Delgado and Santana Reparations, op. cit. supra note 19, par.a 59. 118 Rules of Procedure of the Inter-American Court, 1997, art. 23. 119 Garrido and Baigorria Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 79; cf. Loayza Tamayo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 13, para. 176. 120 In contrast to the European System, where such legal aid has been institutionalised, in the Inter-American System most of the victims who are able to reach the Commission and the Court are supported by non-governmental organisations, which finance a significant amount of the costs incurred. 'z Loayza Tamayo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 13, para. 177. 122 Castillo Paez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 112; Suarez Rosero Reparations, op. cit. supra note 27, para. 99.

�z3 Loayza Tamayo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 13, para. 179; Suarez Rosero Reparations, op. cit. supra note 27, para. 93. 124 Loayza Tamayo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 13, para. 179; Suarez Rosero Reparations, op. cit. supra note 27, para. 99. 125 In the cited case, the victim requested that the Court establish the legal fees at over US$2 million; the Court granted 1% of this sum. I/A Court H.R., Cesti Hurtado Case. Reparations (Art. 63(I) of the American Convention on Human Rights), Judgement of 31 May 2001. Series C No. 78 (hereinafter "Cesti Hurtado Reparations"), paras. 70 to 73. 126 Article 41 of the European Convention establishes that "[i]f the Court finds that there has been a violation of the Convention or the protocols thereto, and if the internal law of the High Contracting Party concerned allows only partial reparation to be made, the Court shall, if necessary, afford just satisfaction to the injured party" European Convention, op. cit. supra note 1, art. 41. 127 "If the Court finds that there has been violation of a human or peoples' right, it shall make appropriate orders to remedy the violation, including the payment of fair compensation or reparation". Protocol to the African Charter, op. cit. supra note 3, art. 27. 128 Inter alia, vid. Garrido and Baigorria reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 40.

129 Inter alia, Maal Case, 1 June 1903, Reports of International Arbitral Awards, vol.X, pp. 732-733 and Campbell Case, 10 June 1931, Reports of International Arbitral Awards, vol. II, p. 1158; cited in Aloeboetoe reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 50. 130 Permanent Court of International Justice, Chorzow Factory Case (Jurisdiction), P.C.I.J., Series A n°9, p. 21. See also Permanent Court of International Justice, Traiti de Neuilly, article 179, annexe, paragraphe 4 (interpretation), arret N° 3, 1924, C.P.J.L, Serie A, N°3, p.9. 131 Garrido and Baigorria Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 40; cf. Castillo Paez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 50 in fine. '3z Van Boven Study, op. cit. supra note 12, p. 19. The Special Rapporteur further explains that repeatedly the Committee has expressed that the State party is under the obligation to pay a compensation to the victim or her next of kin. Ib., p. 30. �33 I/A Court H.R., Velisquez Rodriguez Case, Judgement of 29 July 1988. Series C No. 4 (hereinafter "Velasquez Rodriguez Merits"), operative paragraph 5.

134 Velasquez Rodriguez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 17, para. 14. �3s The Court stated that the duty to investigate and measures of satisfaction were both implicit in the Judgement on the merits Velasquez Rodriguez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 17, paras. 32 to 35. �36 Castillo Paez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 52. �3� Comments to Draft Articles, op. cit. supra note 51; Commentary to Draft Article 30, para. (1). ). �3$ Comments to Draft Articles, op. cit. supra note 51; Commentary to Draft Article 30, para. (11). ).

'39 Paniagua Morales et al. Merits, op. cit. supra note 57, para. 173.

140 Castillo Petruzzi Merits, op. cit. supra note 90, para. 207. 141 American Convention, Art. 64(2), read in conjunction with Art. 64(1). In Inter- American Basic Documents, op. cit. supra note 2, at 44. 142 I/A Court H.R., Proposed amendments to the Naturalization Provisions of the Constitution of Costa Rica, Advisory Opinion OC-4/84 of 19 January 1984. Series A No. 4; I/A Court H.R., Compatibility of Draft Legislation with Article 8(2)(h) of the American Convention on Human Rights, Advisory Opinion OC-12/91 of 6 December 1991. Series A No. 12. �43 The cited provisions were Article 54(2) and (3), which established the discretionary powers of the President of the Republic, as a functionary of military justice, to order that a "military trial not be held in certain cases, when he deems it in the national interest", or "to order the discontinuance of military trials [...] in any circumstances" El Amparo Reparations, op. cit. supra 20, para. 52 144 Such criticism was to be raised, not only by external actors, but also by Judge Cangado Trindade, who registered in his dissent the notion that legal provisions, by their "own existence and in the absence of measures of execution", could also affect the rights enshrined in the American Convention. Therefore, the review of the conformity of such legislation with the general duties established in Articles 1(1) and 2 of the Convention was a duty incumbent upon the Court, pursuant to the duty of prevention. El Amparo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 20; Dissenting Opinion of Judge A. A. Cangado Trindade, at 6. By this statement, Judge Cangado Trindade provided a glimpse of a doctrine that was to influence the plenary Court at a later stage, under his presidency, as can be perceived in the relevant jurisprudence of the Court. 145 El Amparo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 20, paras. 58 to 60.

146 Caballero Delgado and Santana Reparations, op. cit. supra note 19, para. 54. 147 Caballero Delgado and Santana Reparations, op. cit. supra note 19, para. 55. �°e Caballero Delgado and Santana Reparations, op. cit. supra note 19, para. 56. Once again, Judge Cancado Trindade persisted in his dissent, in which he stated that, since "[t]he efficacy of human rights treaties is measured, to a large extent, by their impact upon the domestic law of the State Parties" and, further, reparation includes all measures necessary to afford the individuals the full enjoyment of the violated rights, it ought naturally to include the order for legislative measures, in full compliance with the obligations stemming from Article 2 of the American Convention. Ib., dissenting opinion of Judge A. A. Cancado Trindade, paras. 5 and 13. 149 Decree-Law 25.659, on the crime of treason, established in its sixth Article that no remedies were available to persons detained, implicated or prosecuted for the crime of terrorism, covered by Decree-Law 25.474. Loayza Tamayo Merits, op. cit. supra note 60, para. 51. 150 Loayza Tamayo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 13, paras. 162 to 164, read in conjunction with operative paragraph 5. 151 Castillo Petruzzi Merits, op. cit. supra note 90, para. 188.

isz Castillo Paez Merits, op. cit. supra note 31, para. 82. 's3 I/A Court H.R., Barrios Altos Case, Interpretation of the Judgement on the Merits, Judgement of 14 March 2001. Series C No. 83, para. 18. 154 Cancado Trindade, Antonio Augusto, "Current State and Perspectives of the Inter- American System of Human Rights Protection at the dawn of the New Century", Tulane Journal of International and Comparative Law, Vol. 8, No. 2 , Spring 2000, p. 25. 155 Little more than a month after the issuance of the respective Judgement, the Constitutional Court of Ecuador declared the mentioned article unconstitutional. Suarez Rosero Reparations, op. cit. supra note 27, para. 82. �ss I/A Court H.R., The Last Temptation of Christ Case, Judgement of February 2001. Series C No. 73 (hereinafter "The Last Temptation of Christ Merits"), operative point 4.

157 Garrido and Baigorria reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 66. 158 It must be noted that this commitment was not originated by the ruling of the Court, but rather by a friendly settlement between the victim's relatives and the State. I/A Court H.R., Benavides Cevallos Case, Judgement of 19 July 1998. Series C No. 38 (hereinafter "Benavides Cevallos Judgement), para. 52. 'S9 I/A Court H.R., Trujillo Oroza Case, Judgement of 26 January 2000. Series C No. 64 (hereinafter "Trujillo Oroza Merits"), para. 37. 160 Mayagna (Sumo) Merits, op. cit. supra note 42, para. 122 and those containing its motivation. 161 Mayagna (Sumo) Merits, op. cit. supra note 42, operative point 3. 162 Including, in this definition, all actions of an administrative, civil, or criminal nature. Loayza Tamayo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 13, para. 167; Castillo Paez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 101.

163 Loayza Tamayo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 13, para. 168; Castillo Paez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 105. 164 American Convention, art. 25. In Inter-American Basic Documents, op. cit. supra note 2. 165 I/A Court H.R., Barrios Altos Case, Judgement of 14 March 2001. Series C No. 75 (hereinafter "Barrios Altos Merits"), operative paragraphs 3 and 4. 166 Barrios Altos Merits, op. cit. supra note 165, para. 41 (translation is mine ). 167 A view with which the African Commission concurs: "The failure of the State to deal adequately with human rights violations often results in the systematic denial of justice and, in some instances, conflict and civil war. In societies recovering from conflict situations, the right to effective redress and justice is often discarded in favour of political expediency. The right to fair trial does not permit the use of amnesty to absolve perpetrators of human rights violations from accountability'' African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, Resolution on the Adoption of the Declaration and recommendations of the Seminar on the Right to a Fair Trial, DOC/OS/[XXVI]/INF.19.

168 Durand and Ugarte Merits, op. cit. supra note 71, operative paragraph 7. 169 Velasquez Rodriguez Merits, op. cit. supra note 133, paras. 174 and 181. In the Neira Alegria et Aal. case, the Court further defined this obligation by establishing that the State was under the obligation "to do all in its power to locate and identify the remains of the victims and deliver them to their next of kin", and that this measure constituted a form of "moral reparation". Neira Alegria et al. Reparations, op. cit. supra note 15, para. 69. 170 Castillo Paez Merits, op. cit. supra note 31, para. 90. ��� The Court has defined impunity as "the total lack of investigation, prosecution, capture, trial and conviction of those responsible'' for human rights violations. Paniagua Morales et Al. Merits, op. cit. supra note 57, para. 173. Cf. Garrido and Baigorria reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 73; Loayza Tamayo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 13, para. 170. 172 Velasquez Rodriguez Merits, op. cit. supra note 133, para. 174. Cf Inter alia, Castillo Paez Merits, op. cit. supra note 31, para. 90. ��3 I/A Court H.R., Neira Alegria et Al. Case, Judgement of 19 January 1995. Series C No. 20, para. 69; I/A Court H.R., Caballero Delgado and Santana Case, Judgement of 8

December 1995. Series C No. 22, paras. 58 and 59; El Amparo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 20, para. 61. 174 Paniagua Morales et al. Merits, op. cit. supra note 57, paras. 174 and 177. 175 Comments to Draft Articles, op. cit. supra note 51. 176 Villagran Morales et al. Merits, op. cit. supra note 68, operative paragraph 8. One exception to this practice is found in Cesti Hurtado, in which this obligation was declared in the Judgement on reparations. Cesti Hurtado Reparations, op. cit. supra note 125, para. 60. 177 Castillo Paez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 70; Durand and Ugarte Merits, op. cit. supra note 71, para. 143. 178 Suarez Rosero Merits, op. cit. supra note 65, para. 107.

��9 I/A Court H.R., El Caracazo Case, Judgement of 11 November 1999. Series C No. 58 (hereinafter "El Caracazo Merits"), para. 39. 180 Mayagna (Sumo) Merits, op. cit. supra note 42, operative point 4. (Translation by author.)

181 International Court of Justice, LaGrand Case, Judgement of 27 June 2001 (Merits), available at (hereinafter "La Grand merits"), para. 121. 182 LaGrand Merits, op. cit. supra note 131, operative point 6. 183 Aloeboetoe Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 96.

184 Mayagna (Sumo) Merits, op. cit. supra note 42, operative point 6. 185 I/A Court H.R., Velasquez Rodriguez Case, Interpretation of Judgement on Reparations (Art. 67 of the American Convention on Human Rights). Judgement of 17 August 1990. Series C No. 9, para. 27. 186 Velasquez Rodriguez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 17, para. 26; Godinez Cruz Reparations, op. cit. supra note 16, para. 26. Special Rapporteur van Boven reaches a similar conclusion when stating that the basis for the determination of the amount or nature of compensation is not only the physical damage, but also the emotional harm. Van Boven Study, op. cit. supra note 12, p. 30. 187 Castillo Paez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 51. 188 Aloeboetoe Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 44.

'89 Van Boven Study, op. cit. supra note 12, p. 19. Cf. Velasquez Rodriguez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 17, para. 26; Comments to Draft Articles, op. cit. supra note 51; Commentary to Draft Article 35, para. 2. 190 Comments to Draft Articles, op. cit. supra note 51; Commentary to Draft Article 35, para. (2). '9' Comments to Draft Articles, op. cit. supra note 51; Commentary to Draft Article 35, para. (2). 192 The partial redress nature of restitution was best explained by the Court in the Loayza Tamayo case, in which it stated that the suffering experienced by the victim was a result of her undue, lengthy incarceration, and the treatment to which she was subjected. Loayza Tamayo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 13, para. 123. Suarez Rosero Merits, op. cit. supra note 65, para. 108. '93 In Brigandi, the State reinstated some property rights that had been originally negated to the petitioner (Cour eur. D.H., arret Brigandi du 19 février 1991, sirie A no]94-B, p. 32, para. 34.) In Quaranta, in which the petitioner had been refused free criminal representation, the petitioner acknowledged before the Court the benefits of a partial pardon (Cour eur. D.H, arret Quaranta du 24 mai 1991, serie A nO 205, p. 19, par. 40.). In Eckle, the reduction of a sentence and the termination of a process against

the petitioners were considered by the Court as factors to be taken into account in the determination of the extension of the damages (Cour. eur. D.H., arret Eckle du 21 juin 1983 (article 50), sirie A n° 65, p. 11, para. 24.). 194 Council of Europe (Committee of Ministers), Recommendation R2000 2, 19 January 2000. 195 Cabral Barreto, Ireneu: L'impact de la Convention Europiene des droits de l'homme et de la jurisprudence de la Court européene des droits de l 'homme sur la jurisprudence nationale; mimeograph (restricted circulation), 2000, p. 6. 196 LaGrand Merits, op. cit. supra note 131, p. 125 in fine.

197 Loayza Tamayo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 13, para. 122. 198 Loayza Tamayo Merits, op. cit. supra note 60, para. 84. A similar request had been presented by the Commission in the Sudrez Rosero case vs. Ecuador, but the issue was rendered moot since the victim had been released prior to the issuance of the Court's Judgement. Suarez Rosero Merits, op. cit. supra note 65, paras. 104 and 105. The release of persons wrongfully detained as an emblematic case of restitution has also been acknowledged by the International Law Commission. Comments to Draft Articles, op. cit. supra note 51, p. 238. �99 Letter from the State of Peru of October 27,1997 concerning compliance with the Judgement of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, in Organisation of American States, Annual Report of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights 1997, OAS/Ser.L/V/111.39, Washington, D.C., 1998, at p. 245. 200 Castillo Petruzzi Merits, op. cit. supra note 90, para. 216.c). 201 Castillo Petruzzi Merits, op. cit. supra note 90, para. 219.

202 Cesti Hurtado Reparations, op. cit. supra note 125, para. 194 and operative paragraph 8. In its subsequent interpretation of the ruling on reparations, the Court stated explicitly that such effects included, amongst others, any seizure of property carried out in execution of a condemnatory judgement. I/A Court H.R., Cesti Hurtado Case, Interpretation of the Judgement on Reparations (Art. 67 of the American Convention on Human Rights), Judgement of 27 November 2001 Series C No. 86 (hereinafter "Cesti Reparations' Interpretation"), para. 21 zo3 Van Boven Study, op. cit. supra note 12, p. 57. 204 In contrast to the European Court, the judgements of which are considered to be declaratory, the Inter-American Court has actively ordered the elimination of police and criminal records. The European Court, however, has taken note of such measures in some of the cases before it. Vid Texeira de Castro [09.06.98, Recueil 98-IV, par. 39]: the references to the condemnation of the victim were eliminated from the judicial files by a decision of the judge in charge of the internal proceedings, not by order of the European Court. 205 Loayza Tamayo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 13, para. 122, read in conjunction with operative paragraph 3. 206 Suarez Rosero Reparations, op. cit. supra note 27, para. 76. 207 Cantoral Benavides Reparations, op. cit. supra note 28, paras. 77 and 78.. 208 Garrido and Baigorria Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 41

209 Cesti Hurtado Reparations, op. cit. supra note 125, paras. 57 and 59. 210 The Court went to great detail in the cited case when describing the conditions in which such reinstatement would have to be carried out. It specified that the victim's "salaries and other benefits should be equal to the full amount she was receiving for teaching in the public and private sectors at the time of her detention, adjusted to its value", as of the date of the judgement. Loayza Tamayo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 13, para. 113. 211 Loayza Tamayo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 13, paras. 114 and 116. z�z The Court further decided that, should reinstatement not be possible, the State would then be under the obligation to pay compensation for the termination of the labour relation. I/A Court H.R., Baena Ricardo et al. Case, Judgement of 3 February 2001. Series C No. 72, operative paragraph 7. z�3 Cantoral Benavides Reparations, op. cit. supra note 28, para. 80. 214 Vid, supra, note 72.

215 Aloeboetoe Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 50. 216 Velasquez Rodriguez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 17, para. 52; Godinez Cruz Reparations, op. cit. supra note 16, para. 50. 217 The very authorities of the regional bodies have determined an urgent need for the establishment of clear rules on the criteria to be applied when quantifying the amount of compensation. Report on the First Workshop on the improvement of the regional systems of human rights protection, Lisbon 29-30, mimeograph (restricted circulation), May 1995, p. 8. The difficulty of making such a financial assessment in the international sphere was registered as far back as the Lusitania case. UNRIAA, vol. VII, p. 40 (1923). z�e Garrido and Baigorria Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 43. 219 Velasquez Rodriguez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 17, para. 38; Godinez Cruz Reparations, op. cit. supra note 16, para. 36. In the words of the Court, "[a]lthough some domestic courts, particularly the Anglo-American, award damages in amounts meant to deter or to serve as an example, this principle is not applicable in international law at this time". Ibidem. 220 Garrido and Baigorria Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, par. 43.

221 Gangaram Panday Merits, op. cit. supra note 18, para. 70. 222 I/A Court H.R., Genie Lacayo Case, Judgement of 29 January 1997. Series C No. 30 (hereinafter "Genie Lacayo Merits"), para. 95. The most striking aspect of the Genie Lacayo judgement on the merits is that, although the Court determined the obligation of the State to adopt measures to ensure the enjoyment of the right which was violated (namely, the right to fair trial within reasonable time), no specific measures were ordered to this effect, and no follow-up was provided thereafter. zz3 In this respect, vid. Genie Lacayo Merits, op. cit. supra note 222; Dissenting opinion of Judge M. Pacheco-Gomez. 224 It is evident that sometimes the living conditions of the victims or their families problematise the gathering of documentary evidence. In the EI Amparo case, which concerned the killing of a group of Venezuelan fishermen, the Commission argued that such conditions had prevented the preservation of documents. EI Amparo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 20, para. 19. 225 Loayza Tamayo reparations, at paras. 48 to 50, read in conjunction with para. 106. 226 El Amparo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 20, para. 28; Neira Alegria et al. Reparations, op. cit. supra note 15, para. 49; Suarez Rosero Reparations, op. cit. supra note 27, para. 58. Usually, the Court considers that the income to be taken into account includes all social guarantees that are applicable in each particular case, such as additional salaries that are applicable pursuant to some labour systems in Latin America. Cf. Caballero Delgado and Santana Reparations, op. cit. supra note 19, para. 42; Loayza Tamayo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 13, para. 106.E.b).

227 Aloeboetoe Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 88; Neira Alegria et al. Reparations, op. cit. supra note 15, para. 49; Castillo Paez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 75. 228 El Amparo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 20, para. 28. 229 Neira Alegria et al. Reparations, op. cit. supra note 15, para. 50. z3o Caballero Delgado and Santana Reparations, op. cit. supra note 19, paras. 44 and 45. Cf. Garrido and Baigorria reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, paras. 59 and 60. z3� Vid, supra, "Material Damage". zsz Velasquez Rodriguez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 17, para. 47; Godinez Cruz Reparations, op. cit. supra note 16, para. 45; Castillo Paez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 68.C).a). z33 El Amparo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 20, para. 28. zso El Amparo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 20, para. 28. zas El Amparo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 20, para. 28; Loayza Tamayo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 13, para. 128; Suarez Rosero Reparations, op. cit. supra note 27, para. 59. zss Loayza Tamayo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 13, para. 129.

z3� Castillo Paez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 76, read in conjunction with paras. 68.B).d) and 71.c). zas Cesti Hurtado Reparations, op. cit. supra note 125, para. 46. z'9 Cesti Reparations' Interpretation, op. cit. supra note 202, para. 10. zao I/A Court H.R., Constitutional Tribunal Case, Judgement of 31 January 2001. Series C No. 71 (hereinafter "Constitutional Tribunal Merits), paras. 121 and 122, and operative 5. 241 Ivcher Bronstein Merits, op. cit. supra note 105, para. 181. 242 I/A Court H.R., Ivcher Bronstein Case, Interpretation of the Judgement on the Merits (Art. 67 of the American Convention on Human Rights), Judgement of 4 September 2001. Series C No. 84, para. 16.

z43 Castillo Paez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 77. 244 El Amparo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 20, para. 17. 245 Insofar as the respective health concerns arose as a result of the violations for which the State is responsible. Loayza Tamayo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 13, para. 129.b); Castillo Paez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 77. 246 Suarez Rosero Reparations, op. cit. supra note 27, para. 60.c). 247 in the Suarez Rosero case, the Court took note of the fact that the victim's spouse was physically challenged, and the victim's undue incarceration had prevented him from providing assistance in the household. Therefore, the Court ordered the payment of the costs incurred to hire domestic help. Suarez Rosero Reparations, op. cit. supra note 27, para. 60.b). 248 In the Castillo Paez case, the Court ordered the payment of a lump sum of US$25,000 as compensation for special damages. 249 Vid, inter alia, The Last Temptation of Christ Merits, op. cit. supra note 156, operative paragraph 5. 250 Garrido and Baigorria reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 82; Constitutional Tribunal Merits, op. cit. supra note 240, operative paragraph 6. "Cesti Hurtado Reparations, op. cit. supra note 125, para. 68, read in conjunction with footnote 17, at para. 41.e). 252 Cesti Hurtado Reparations, op. cit. supra note 125, para. 41.e).

zs3 Cesti Reparations' Interpretation, op. cit. supra note 202, para. 22. 254 Ivcher Bronstein Merits, op. cit. supra note 105, para. 189, read in conjunction with para. 172.c). 255 Cour. eur. D.H., arret Wiesinger du 30 octobre 1991, serie A n°213, p. 29, para. 85. 256 Vid., inter alia, Cour eur. D.H., arret Kenmache c. France (article 50) du 2 novembre 1993, serie A n° 270-B, p. 16, para. 11; Cour eur. D.H., arret Mats Jacobsson du 28 juin 1990, serie A n°180-A, p. 16, para. 44; Cour eur. D.H., arret Ferraro du 19 fevrier 1991, serie A n° 197-A, p. 10, para. 21. 257 Velasquez Rodriguez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 17, para. 27; Godinez Cruz Reparations, op. cit. supra note 16, para. 24; Castillo Paez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 85. 258 Velasquez Rodriguez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 17, para. 34. Cf. Neira Alegria et al. Reparations, op. cit. supra note 15, para. 55.

259 Velasquez Rodriguez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 17, para. 27; Godinez Cruz Reparations, op. cit. supra note 16, para. 25; Aloeboetoe reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 87. 260 Velasquez Rodriguez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 17, para. 27.

261 Castillo Petruzzi Merits, op. cit. supra note 90, para. 198.

262 Aloeboetoe Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 87. zss Aloeboetoe Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 87. zsa Vied, supra, "Restoration". 265 Cantor) Benavides Reparations, op. cit. supra note 28, para. 81. 266 The enumeration provided by the International Law Commission is of some use in this respect, but fails to adhere to academic rigour. In effect, the ILC has described, as measures of reparation, "trust fund to manage compensation payments in the interests of the beneficiaries, disciplinary or penal action against the individuals whose conduct caused the internationally wrongful act" In my view, the former is, rather than a measure of redress, a method of compliance; the latter is a measure of cessation of the

violation. Cf. Comments to Draft Articles, op. cit. supra 51; Commentary to Draft Article 37, par. (5). 267 Velasquez Rodriguez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 17, para. 36; Godinez Cruz Reparations, op. cit. supra note 16, para. 34; Aloeboetoe reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 31; El Amparo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 20, para. 62; Suarez Rosero Reparations, op. cit. supra note 27, para. 72; Mayagna (Sumo) Merits, op. cit. supra note 42, operative paragraph 5. This statement may have found its way into the Court's jurisprudence by derivation from the similar ruling of the International Court of Justice in the Corfu Channel case. Corfu Channel, Merits, LC.J. Reports 1949, p. 4, at p. 35. zse In a few cases, the Court has considered the determination of responsibility a sufficient form of reparation to some of the injured parties: in Cesti Hurtado, the condemnatory judgement was seen as adequate reparation for the father and mother-in- law of the victim, who had suffered moral damage (Cesti Hurtado Reparations, op. cit. supra note 125, para. 56). ze4 Vid, inter alia, Cour eur. D.H., arret McCallum du 30 aout 1990, serie A n°183, p. 27, para. 37; Cour eur. D.H., arret Lala c. Pays-Bas du 22 Septembre 1994, serie A n°297-A p. 15, para. 38; Cour eur. D.H., arret Ruiz Torija c. Espagne du 9 decembre 1994, serie A n°303-A p. 13, para. 33. 270 A most striking case of such de-naturalisation occurred in the Villagran Morales et al. case, in which the Court considered its judgement to be a form of "compensation" for moral damage. Villagran Morales et al. Reparations, op. cit. supra note 33, para. 88.

2" Theo van Boven, "The Right to Compensation and Related Remedies for Racial Discrimination", Concluding Observations of the Conference on the Right to Compensation and Related Remedies for Racial Discrimination hosted by the Danish Centre for Human Rights, Copenhagen, on 27-28 April mimeograph (restricted circulation), 2001, p. 5. (The final printed version of Mr van Boven's observations are included in this volume.) 272 Rules of Court 2001, op. cit. supra note 8, art. 52(2). 273 Benavides Cevallos Judgement, op. cit. supra note 158, para. 35. 274 I/A Court H.R., Aloeboetoe et al. Case, Judgement of 4 December 1991. Series C No. 11, paras. 22 and 23. 275 I/A Court H.R., El Amparo Case, Judgement of 18 January 1995. Series C No. 19, para. 19. z'6 I/A Court H.R., Garrido and Baigorria Case, Judgement of 2 February 1996. Series C No. 26, paras. 24 and 25. 277 Trujillo Oroza Merits, op. cit. supra note 159, paras. 36 to 38. 278 El Caracazo Merits, op. cit. supra note 179, paras. 37 to 39. 279 Barrios Altos Merits, op. cit. supra note 165, paras. 34 to 36.

280 American Convention, Art. 68(1). In Inter-American Basic Documents, op. cit. supra note 2. 281 This is a possibility envisaged under Article 56(2) of the Rules of Procedure: "[i]f the Court is informed that the parties to the case have reached an agreement in regard to the execution of the judgement on the merits, it shall verify the fairness of the agreement and rule accordingly" (Rules of Court 2001, op. cit. supra note 8, art. 56(2)). One recent case of implementation of this disposition is Durand and Ugarte, in which Peru and the injured party concluded an extensive agreement on reparations, which was then authorised by the Court. 282 Castillo Paez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 97.

z83 Cantoral Benavides Reparations, op. cit. supra note 28, para. 81. 284 In the Aloeboetoe et al. case, the Commission requested that "the President of Suriname apologise publicly for the killings; and that the chiefs of the Saramaka tribe be invited to come before the Congress of Suriname to receive an apology..." Aloeboetoe Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 20. Cf. Caballero Delgado and Santana Reparations, op. cit. supra note 19, para. 58, Loayza Tamayo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 13, para. 158, read in conjunction with paragraph 155; Suarez Rosero Reparations, op. cit. supra note 27, para. 72. 285 Suarez Rosero Reparations, op. cit. supra note 27, para. 69.

286 Loayza Tamayo Reparations, op. cit. supra note 13, para. 155.a); Castillo Paez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 94. 287 Series C of the publications of the Tribunal includes all Judgements issued in contentious cases. 288 Castillo Paez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 96. 289 Cantoral Benavides Reparations, op. cit. supra note 28, para. 79. 290 Durand and Ugarte Merits, op. cit. supra note 71, para. 39.a). 291 Barrios Altos Merits, op. cit. supra note 165, operative paragraph 5. 292 In the Velasquez Rodriguez case, the widow of the victim requested the Court to order the State of Honduras to carry out "[a] public act to honour and dignify the memory of the disappeared. A street, park, elementary school, high school, or hospital could be named for the victims of disappearances" Velasquez Rodriguez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 17, para. 7. Cf. Godinez Cruz Reparations, op. cit. supra note 16, para. 6; Aloeboetoe Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 20; Castillo Paez Reparations, op. cit. supra note 14, para. 94.

293 Benavides Cevallos Judgement, op. cit. supra note 158, para. 48. 294 M6nica Pinto, Fragmentation or unification among International Institutions: Human Rights Tribunals, available at , pp. 835-836.

295 Suarez Rosero Merits, op. cit. supra note 65, para. 80.

296 Mayagna (Sumo) Merits, op. cit. supra note 42, para. 146 (the translation is mine). Cf. I/A Court H.R., The Right to Information on Consular Assistance in the Framework of the Guarantees of the Due Process of Law, Advisory Opinion OC-16/99 of I October 1999. Series A No. 16, para. 114.

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