A Human Rights Approach to Poverty

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' From the rich literature on this topic cf., e.g., the earlier Human Rights in Development Yearbooks; the Netherlands Advisory Council on International Affairs (AIV), A Human Rights BasedApproach to Development Cooperation (The Hague, 2003); Anette WindmeiBer, Der Menschenrechtsansatz in derEntwicklungszusammen- arbeit (Wien: Verlag Osterreich, 2002); International Council on Human Rights Policy, Duties sans Frontieres: Human Rights and Global Social Justice (Geneva, 2003); Manfred Nowak, Introduction to the International Human Rights Regime (Leiden/Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2003), pp. 43-45, 137-153, 242-246, 341-342.

' Article 8 of the Vienna Declaration states that "democracy, development and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms are interdependent and mutually reinforcing". Article 10 of the Vienna Declaration, which was adopted with the consent of the US government, reaffirmed the right to development as defined in the 1986 Declaration on the Right to Development (which had been adopted against the vote ofthe US) "as an integral part of fundamental human rights". The V ienna Programme of Action dedicated a separate chapter (Articles 66 to 77) to the correlation between development, democracy and human rights. For the text of the Vienna Declaration and the decisive contribution of NGOs, see Manfred Nowak (ed.), World Conference on Human Rights (Vienna: Manz, 1994). ' See in particular UNDP (United Nations Development Progamme), Human Development Report 2000: Human Rights and Human Development (New York: UNDP, 2000). See also the Report of the 1998 Oslo Symposium on Human Development and Human Rights, organised jointly by UNDP, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights and the Royal Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Norway (Copenhagen: UNDP, 1998).

4 See, e.g., Elena Fierro, The EU's Approach to Human Rights Conditionality in Practice (New York: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2003); Frank Hof&neister, Menschenrechts- und Demokratieklausefn in den vertraglichen Aussenbeziehungen der Europdischen Gemeinschaft (Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer, 1998); WindmeifSer, supra (note 1). 5 Netherlands Advisory Council on International Affairs, supra (note 1), p. 39. 6 World Bank, World Development Report 2000/2001 Attacking Poverty (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), Foreword by James D. Wolfensohn at p. v. 'Ibid.

a For Volume 1, see Deepa Narayan, Ray Patel, Kai Schafft, Anne Rademacher and Sarah Koch-Schulte, Voices ofthe Poor: CanAAnyone Hear Us? (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000); for Volume 2, see Deepa Narayan, Robert Chambers, Meera K. Shah and Patti Petesch, Voices of the Poor: Crying Out for Change (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000); for Volume 3, see Deepa Narayan and Patti Petesch, Voices of the Poor: From Many Lands (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002). ' See IMF/IDA (International Monetary Fund/International Development Association), PovertyReduction Strategy Papers: Progress in Implementation, progress report of 12 September 2003 prepared by the staffs ofthe IMF and the World Bank. �° OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development), The DAC Guidelines Poverty Reduction (Paris: OECD, 2001), p. 37.

" UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Statement on Poverty and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, UN doc. E/C.12/2001/10, paras. 1, 3 and 13. " Mary Robinson, "Bridging the Gap between Human Rights and Development", Presidential Lecture, World Bank, Washington, December 2001, http:/www.unhchr.ch/development/newsroom.html. " Paul Hunt, Manfred Nowak, Siddiq Osmani, Human Rights and Poverty Reduction Strategies: A Discussion Paper of 28 February 2002. A revised version of this discussion paper has been published by the UN Acting High Commissioner for Human Rights, Bertrand Ramcharan, in December 2003: OHCHR (Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights), Human Rights and Poverty Reduction: A Conceptual Framework (New York and Geneva: United Nations, 2004).

" OHCHR (Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights), Draft Guidelines: A Human Rights Approach to Poverty Reduction Strategies (Geneva: United Nations, 2002), available at: http://www.unhchr.ch/ development/povertyfmal.html. The Swiss Development Cooperation (DEZA) has published aten-page summary of the Draft Guidelines focussing on the right to health as one illustration of the operational guidelines. See: http:/www.deza.ch. " Vienna Declaration and Plan of Action, 1993, para. 14.

'6 Programme of Action of the World Summit for Social Development (Copenhagen, 1995), para. 19. " Millennium Development Declaration, UN General Assembly resolution 55/2 of 8 September 2000. 'B World Bank, supra (note 6), p. vi. " See supra (note 8). See also World Bank, supra (note 6), pp. 15 et seq. '° LJNDP (United Nations Development Programme), Poverty Report 2000: OvercomingHuman Poverty (New York: UNDP, 2000), p. 20. See also Bjorn Philipp, Poverty: World Bank and UNDP Concepts (Berlin: Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, 1999).

21 As often, the term "human rights" is meant here in the reduced sense of civil and political rights. 22 OECD, supra (note 10), pp. 37 et seq. 2 International Council on Human Rights Policy, supra (note 1), p. 17. " Ibid " Statement on Poverty, supra (note 11), para. 8. 26 See General Comment No. 15 ofthe Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, on the right to water, adopted on 29 November 2002. Report of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, UN doc. E/2003/22, pp. 120-136.

2 Amartya Sen, Poverty and Famines (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1981); Jean Drèze and Amartya Sen, Hunger and PublicAction (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989); Amartya Sen, Inequality Re-examined (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992); Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom (New York: Anchor Books, 1999). 'e Sen, 1999, supra (note 27), p. 87. 29 For the following, see the Conceptual Framework developed by the three experts, OHCHR, supra (note 13), pp. 5-12. 30 John Rawls, A Theory ofJustice (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971). Sen, 1999, supra (note 27), pp. 63--65.

" OHCHR, supra (note 13), p. 10. 32 Sen, 1981, supra (note 27). " OHCHR, supra (note 14), Guidelines 6 to 14, at pp. 18-52.

" OHCHR, supra (note 14), pp. 1-5.

" OHCHR, supra (note 14), Guidelines 16 to 18, at pp. 57-60. 16 Narayan et al., 2000, supra (note 8), p. 281. 1. " OHCHR, supra (note 14), Guideline 14, at pp. 48-52. 38 Ibid., Guideline 5, at pp. 16-17.

"OHCHR, supra (note 14), Guideline 12, at pp. 42-44. 4. �bid, Guideline 3, at pp. 13-14; OHCHR, supra (note 13), pp. 17-18. 41 OHCHR, supra (note 14), Guideline 1, at pp. 11-12.

°Z OHCHR, supra (note 14), para. 24, at p. 5. 43 Ibid, Guideline 8, at pp. 26-30. 44 On the interpretation of the right to education see, e.g., General Comments No. 11 and 13 of the LJN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Report ofthe Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, UN doc. E/2000/22, pp. 99-101 and 111-127; General Comment No. 1 of the Committee on the Rights ofthe Child, Report ofthe Committee on the Rights ofthe Child, UN doc. CRC/C/103, pp. 150-158; the various reports of the UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Education, i1N docs. E/CN.4/1999/49, E/CN.4/2000/6, E/CN.4/2001/52, E/CN.4/2002/50, E/CN.4/2003/9, E/CN.4/2004/45 and And. Manfred Nowak, "The Right to Education", in Asbjam Eide, Catarina Krause and Allan Rosas (eds.), Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: A Tectbook, 2nd rev. ed. (Dordrecht: Martinus NijhotfPublishers, 2001), pp. 245-271.

45 See the World Declaration on Education for All (Jomtien, 1990); Education for All Summit, The Delhi Declaration and Framework for Action (1993); Education for All: Dakar Framework for Action (2000).

46 OHCHR, supra (note 14), Guideline 18, at pp. 59-60. See also OHCHR, supra (note 13), pp. 27-30. 47 Intemational Council on Human Rights Policy, supra (note 1), p. 41. 1.

" See the offcial UN website of the Global Compact at http://www.unglobalcompact.org. "9 Cf, e.g., World Bank, supra (note 6), pp. 11-12; UNDP, supra (note 20), pp. 8-15. so Cf OHCHR, supra (note 13), p. 29.


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