Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) Nielsen is an important plantation species in Indonesia. The objective of this study was to understand the radial variation of microfibril angle in the S2 layer of the wood fiber wall (MFA) in P. falcataria, and its relationship to compression properties parallel to the grain, including modulus of elasticity (E) and compression strength (σ). MFA gradually decreased from pith to bark while both E and σ increased from pith to bark. Significant differences in MFA, E, and σ were found among the five sample trees. Single-regression analysis of wood and compression properties revealed that the compression properties of core wood were affected mainly by density, whereas those in outer wood were affected by both MFA and air-dry density (AD).