We examined fifty main structural components from fifteen historical wood buildings located in the northern, central, southern and south-eastern regions of Shanxi Province, China and dating from the Tang to the Qing Dynasty. Eleven timber-tree genera were identified: Cupressus, Larix, Malus, Picea, Pinus subg. Diploxylon, Populus, Quercus, Sophora, Sorbus, Ulmus and Zizyphus. Furthermore, wood specimens of Larix and Pinus subg. Diploxylon were determined to species level, viz. Larix gmelinii var. principis-rupprechtii and Pinus tabuliformis, according to their original geographical distribution in this region. Natural distribution of the wood species was apparently the leading criterion for timber selection since most identified genera are native to the areas surrounding the buildings investigated.