Effect of sucrose exposure on the xylem anatomy of three temperate species

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ABSTRACT

This study is a continuation of research on the role of sucrose in figured wood formation in temperate trees. Different concentrations of sucrose solutions were administered for 7 weeks to trunk tissues of Betula pendula Roth, Alnus incana (L.) Moench and Populus tremula L. Then xylem anatomy was examined with particular emphasis to the number of vessels and the spatial orientation of xylem elements. In B. pendula and A. incana a high level of exogenous sucrose caused a reduction in the number and size of xylem vessels, even to the point of absence of vessels. Sucrose concentrations of 100 and 200 g l-1 induced the formation of curly grain and anomalous club-shaped rays in xylem of B. pendula. Populus tremula xylem was not significantly altered by the experiment; the xylem anatomy was more seriously affected by wounding than by sucrose. In B. pendula and A. incana the wood formed during the experiment was similar to figured wood of these species. The decrease in the number and size of vessels in the xylem formed during the experiment possibly suggests that high concentrations of sucrose lead to a decline in the level of physiologically active auxin. Changes in the orientation of xylem elements points to a disruption of basipetal auxin transport. Further biochemical and physiological studies are needed to provide more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between sucrose and auxin during the development of figure in wood.

Effect of sucrose exposure on the xylem anatomy of three temperate species

in IAWA Journal

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Figures

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    Schematic representation of chambers on a tree trunk: radial (A) and frontal (B) projections.

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    Transverse sections of xylem formed in a chamber. – A: Populus tremula, treated with 100 g l-1 sucrose. – B: Alnus incana, treated with 100 g l-1 sucrose. – C: Betula pendula, treated with 50 g l-1 sucrose. – NX = normal xylem, MZ = middle zone, PZ = peripheral zone, lwPZ = lower subzone in the peripheral zone, upPZ = upper subzone in the peripheral zone, CZ = cambial zone. Double black arrow indicates xylem increment formed during the experiment.

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    Parenchyma cells in the middle zone of Betula pendula. In the treatment with 25 g l-1 sucrose (A) the middle zone appeared as a layer of radially flattened cells (black-and-white arrows). 100 g l-1 (B) and 200 g l-1 (C) sucrose caused the formation of parenchyma layer in the middle zone (double white arrow). NX = normal xylem, PZ = peripheral zone, Phl = phloem, R = rays, V = vessels. – D: Tangential section through the middle zone, treated with 200 g L-1 sucrose. Black-and-white arrows indicate transverse cell walls of parenchyma cells, R = rays. – E: The cells had thick lignified walls (double white arrows) penetrated by pits (black arrows). – F: Cell lumina of parenchyma cells in MZ were filled with starch grains. Black-and-white arrows indicate cells with starch grains, R = cells of xylem ray.

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    Parameters of vessels and rays in the peripheral zone of Betula pendula. – A: Number of rays and vessels per linear mm. – B: Histogram of vessel lumen area (μm2) distribution in the peripheral zone. – C: Width of uniseriate and biseriate rays (μm).

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    – A: Club-shaped thickenings of Betula pendula xylem rays (black arrows). Treated with 200 g l-1 sucrose, transverse section. — B: Curly grain in the peripheral zone of Betula pendula xylem. Treated with 200 g l-1 sucrose, tangential section. — C: Layer of parenchyma cells in the middle zone of Alnus incana. Treated with 10 g l-1 sucrose, transverse section. NX = normal xylem, lwPZ = lower peripheral zone, R = rays, V = vessels, double white arrow indicates a layer of axial parenchyma in MZ. — D: Starch grains in cells of axial and ray parenchyma in the xylem of Alnus incana. Black-and-white arrows indicate rows of axial parenchyma cells, Rp = ray parenchyma cells. — E: Cells of scanty paratracheal parenchyma in the middle zone of Populus tremula. Variant with 200 g l-1 sucrose, transverse section. Double white arrow indicates MZ, black-and-white arrows point out cells of scanty paratracheal parenchyma. NX = normal xylem, PZ = peripheral zone, R = rays, V = vessels.

  • View in gallery

    – A & B: Number of rays and vessels per linear mm in upPZ of Alnus incana (A) and Populus tremula (B). – C & D: Histogram of vessel lumen area (μm2) distribution in the peripheral zone of Alnus incana (C) and Populus tremula (D). – E & F: Width of rays in upPZ of Alnus incana (E) and Populus tremula (F).

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