Effect of sucrose exposure on the xylem anatomy of three temperate species

in IAWA Journal
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.


Have Institutional Access?

Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



This study is a continuation of research on the role of sucrose in figured wood formation in temperate trees. Different concentrations of sucrose solutions were administered for 7 weeks to trunk tissues of Betula pendula Roth, Alnus incana (L.) Moench and Populus tremula L. Then xylem anatomy was examined with particular emphasis to the number of vessels and the spatial orientation of xylem elements. In B. pendula and A. incana a high level of exogenous sucrose caused a reduction in the number and size of xylem vessels, even to the point of absence of vessels. Sucrose concentrations of 100 and 200 g l-1 induced the formation of curly grain and anomalous club-shaped rays in xylem of B. pendula. Populus tremula xylem was not significantly altered by the experiment; the xylem anatomy was more seriously affected by wounding than by sucrose. In B. pendula and A. incana the wood formed during the experiment was similar to figured wood of these species. The decrease in the number and size of vessels in the xylem formed during the experiment possibly suggests that high concentrations of sucrose lead to a decline in the level of physiologically active auxin. Changes in the orientation of xylem elements points to a disruption of basipetal auxin transport. Further biochemical and physiological studies are needed to provide more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between sucrose and auxin during the development of figure in wood.

Effect of sucrose exposure on the xylem anatomy of three temperate species

in IAWA Journal



Ahokas H. 1985. Cytokinins in the spring sap of curly birch (Betula pendula f. carelica) and the non-curly form. J. Plant Physiol. 118: 3339.

Aloni R. 2015. Ecophysiological implications of vascular differentiation and plant evolution. Trees. 29: 116.

Aloni R Alexander JD Tyree MT . 1997. Natural and experimentally altered hydraulic architecture of branch junctions in Acer saccharum Marsh. and Quercus velutina Lam. trees. Trees 11: 255264.

Aloni R Zimmermann MH . 1983. The control of vessel size and density along the plant axis – a new hypothesis. Differentiation 24: 203208.

Aloni R Zimmermann MH . 1984. Length, width, and pattern of regenerative vessels along strips of vascular tissue. Bot. Gaz. 145: 5054.

Angyalossy V Pace MR Evert RF Marcati CR Oskolski AA Terrazas T Kotina E Lens F Mazzoni-Viveiros SC Angeles G Machado SR Crivellaro A Rao KS Junikka L Nikolaeva N Baas P . 2016. IAWA List of microscopic bark features. IAWA J. 37: 517615.

Arbellay E Fonti P Stoffel M . 2012. Duration and extension of anatomical changes in wood structure after cambial injury. J. Exp. Bot. 63: 32713277.

Arbellay E Stoffel M Bollschweiler M . 2010. Wood anatomical analysis of Alnus incana and Betula pendula injured by a debris-flow event. Tree Physiol. 30: 12901298.

Ballesteros JA Stoffel M Bollschweiler M Bodoque JM Diez-Herrero A . 2010. Flash-flood impacts cause changes in wood anatomy of Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus angustifolia and Quercus pyrenaica. Tree Physiol. 30: 773781.

Baril’skaya LA . 1978. Structural analysis of Karelian birch figured wood. Botanichiskii Zhurnal 63: 805811.

Beals HO Davis TC . 1977. Figure in wood: an illustrated review. Auburn UniversityAuburn.

Bhat KM . 1980. Pith flecks and ray abnormalities in birch wood. Silva Fenn. 14: 277285.

Bieleski RL . 1962. The physiology of sugar-cane. V. Kinetics of sugar accumulation. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 15: 429444.

Biggs AR . 2008. Anatomical and physiological responses of bark tissues to mechanical injury. In: Blanchette RA Biggs AR (eds.) Defense mechanisms of woody plants against fungi: 13–40. Springer-VerlagBerlin.

Brovchenko MI . 1965. About the sugars uptake from mesophyll to vascular bandles of sugar beet leaves. Russ. J. Plant Physiol. 12: 270279.

Buksnowitz C Teischinger A Muller U Pahler A Evans R . 2007. Resonance wood [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] – evaluation and prediction of violin makers’ quality-grading. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 121: 23842395.

Carmi A Sachs T Fahn A . 1972. The relation of ray spacing to cambial growth. New Phytol. 71: 349353.

Deflorio G Franz E Fink S Schwarze FWMR . 2009. Host responses in the xylem of trees after inoculation with six wood-decay fungi differing in invasiveness. Botany 87: 2635.

Digby J Wareing PF . 1966. The effect of applied growth hormones on cambial division and the differentiation of the cambial derivatives. Ann. Bot. 30: 539550.

Doley D Leyton L . 1968. Effects of growth regulating substances and water potential on the development of secondary xylem in Fraxinus. New Phytol. 67: 579594.

Fan Y Rupert K Wiedenhoeft A Woeste K Lexer C Meilan R . 2013. Figured grain in aspen is heritable and not affected by graft-transmissible signals. Trees 27: 973983.

Farrar J Pollock C Gallagher J . 2000. Sucrose and the integration of metabolism in vascular plants. Plant Sci. 154: 111.

Franke R Schreiber L . 2007. Suberin - a biopolyester forming apoplastic plant interfaces. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 10: 252259.

Frankenstein C Schmitt U . 2006. Wound effects in the xylem of poplar: A UV microspectrophotometric study. Holzforschung 60: 595600.

Fromm J. 1997. Hormonal physiology of wood growth in willow (Salix viminalis L.): effects of spermine and abscisic acid. Wood Sci. Technol. 31: 119130.

Galibina NA Novitskaya LL Krasavina MS Moshchenskaya YL . 2015. Activity of invertase in trunk tissues of Karelian birch. Russ. J. Plant Physiol. 62: 804813.

Gamalei Y. 2004. Transport system of vascular plants. SPbGUSt-Petersburg.

Hagqvist R Mikkola A . 2008. Visakoivun kasvatus ja käyttö. Metsäkustannus & VisaseuraryHämeenlinna.

Harms U Sauter JJ . 1992. Localization of a storage protein in the wood ray parenchyma cells of Taxodium distichum (L.) L.C. Rich. by immunogold labeling. Trees 6: 3740.

Hatch MD Glasziou KT . 1964. Direct evidence for translocation of sucrose in sugarcane leaves and stems. Plant Physiol. 39: 180184.

Hintikka TJ . 1941. Visakoivusta ja niiden anatomista. Suomalaisen kirjallisuuden seuran kirjapainon OyHelsinki.

Horacio P Martinez-Noel G . 2013. Sucrose signaling in plants: A world yet to be explored. Plant Signal Behav. 8: e23316.

Karelina TV Novitskaya LL . 2011. Influence of different concentrations of sucrose and products of its cleavage on the conducting tissues morphogenesis of Populus tremula L., Alnus incana (L.) Moench and Betula pendula Roth. In: Novitskaya LL (ed.) Structural and functional deviations from normal growth and development of plants under the influence of environmental factors: 107–112. KRC RASPetrozavodsk.

Korovin VV . 1987. Common features in anatomy of anomalous woods. Botanichiskii Zhurnal 72: 472476.

Korovin VV Novitskaya LL Kurnosov GA . 2003. Structural abnormalities of the stem in woody plants. Moscow State Forest UniversityMoscow.

Kosichenko NE Shchetinkin SV . 1982. Structural aspects of the hormone dependency of cambial activity disruptions. In: Problems of woody plants physiology and biochemistry: 124. Krasnoyarsk.

Kosonen M. 2004. Visakoivu. Kustannusosakeyhtiö MetsälehtiKeuruu.

Krabel D. 2000. Influence of sucrose on cambial activity. In: Savidge RABarnett JRNapier R (eds.) Cell and molecular biology of wood formation: 113–125. BIOS Scientific Publishers LimitedOxford.

Kurczyńska EU Hejnowicz Z . 1991. Differentiation of circular vessels in isolated segments of Fraxinus excelsior. Physiol. Plant. 83: 275280.

Kuroda K. 1986. Wound effects on cytodifferentiation in the secondary xylem of woody plants. Wood Research 72: 67118.

Kuroda K Shimaji K . 1985. Wound effects on cytodifferentiation in hardwood xylem. IAWA Bull. n.s. 6: 107–118.

Kursanov AL . 1984. Assimilate transport in plants. ElsevierAmsterdam, New York, Oxford.

Kursanov AL Brovchenko MI . 1969. Free space as the intermediate zone between photosynthetic and conductive cells of leaf blade. Russ. J. Plant Physiol. 16: 965972.

Kuwajima M. 2011. Cross-linking fixatives: What they are what they do and why we use them. Kristen Harris Lab Protocols.

Lachaud S Bonnemain JL . 1984. Seasonal variations in the polar-transport pathways and retention sites of [3H]indole-3-acetic acid in young branches of Fagus sylvatica L. Planta 161: 207215.

Langenfeld-Heyser R. 1987. Distribution of leaf assimilates in the stem of Picea abies L. Trees 1: 102109.

Lev-Yadun S Aloni R . 1991. An experimental method of inducing ‘Hazel’ wood in Pinus halepensis (Pinaceae). IAWA Bull. n.s. 12: 445451.

Lev-Yadun S Aloni R . 1993. Effect of wounding on the relations between vascular rays and vessels in Melia azedarach L. New Phytol. 124: 339344.

Lowerts G Wheeler E Kellison R . 1986. Characteristics of wound-associated wood of yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). Wood Fiber Sci. 18: 537552.

Lyubavskaya AY . 1978. Karelian birch. Moscow State Forest UniversityMoscow.

Meilan R Grober S . 2007. Poplar tree named ‘Curly Poplar’ U.S. Patent No. PP17525. 27 Mar. 2007.

Mulhern J Shortle W Shigo A . 1979. Notes: barrier zones in red maple: an optical and scanning microscope examination. Forest Sci. 25: 311316.

Mullick DB . 1977. The non-specific nature of defense in bark and wood during wounding, insect and pathogen attack. In: Loewus FA Runeckles VC (eds.) The structure biosynthesis and degradation of wood: 395–441. SpringerBoston.

Naujoks G Schneck V Ewald D . 2017. 30 Jahre In-vitro-Vermehrung der Braunmaser-Birke. AFZ-DerWald. No. 5: 3235.

Novitskaya LL . 2008. Karelian birch: mechanisms of growth and development of structural abnormalities. VersoPetrozavodsk.

Novitskaya LL Kushnir FV . 2006. The role of sucrose in regulation of trunk tissue development in Betula pendula Roth. J. Plant Growth Regul. 25: 1829.

Novitskaya L Nikolaeva N Galibina N Tarelkina T Semenova L . 2016a. The greatest density of parenchyma inclusions in Karelian birch wood occurs at confluences of phloem flows. Silva Fenn. 50: 14611478.

Novitskaya L Nikolaeva N Tarelkina T . 2016b. Endogenous variability of the figured wood of Karelian birch. Wulfenia 23: 175188.

Ohtani J Fukazawa K Fukumorita T . 1987. SEM observations on indented rings. IAWA Bull. n.s. 8: 113124.

Pearce RB Rutherford J . 1981. A wound-associated suberized barrier to the spread of decay in the sapwood of oak (Quercus robur L.). Physiol. Plant Pathol. 19: 359369.

Peel AJ Ford J . 1968. The movement of sugars into the sieve elements of bark strips of willow: II. Evidence for two pathways from the bathing. J. Exp. Bot. 19: 370380.

Pfautsch S Renard J Tjoelker MG Salih A . 2015. Phloem as capacitor: radial transfer of water into xylem of tree stems occurs via symplastic transport in ray parenchyma. Plant Physiol. 167: 963971.

Račko V Misikova O . 2015. Formation of barrier zones of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) inducted by injury. Acta Facultatis Xylologiae 57: 514.

Rademacher P Bauch J Shigo AL . 1984. Characteristics of xylem formed after wounding in Acer, Betula, and Fagus. IAWA Bull. n.s. 5: 141150.

Rinne P Tuominen H Sundberg B . 1993. Growth patterns and endogenous indole-3-acetic acid concentrations in current-year coppice shoots and seedlings of two Betula species. Physiol. Plant. 88: 403412.

Rioux D. 2006. Birdseye maple: a matter of hormones? Branching out from the Canadian Forest ServiceLaurentian Forestry Centre. No. 30.

Rioux D Yamada T Simard M Lessard G Rheault FJ Blouin D . 2003. Contribution to the fine anatomy and histochemistry of birdseye sugar maple. Can. J. For. Res. 33: 946958.

Roitsch T Balibrea ME Hofmann M Proels R Sinha AK . 2003. Extracellular invertase: key metabolic enzyme and PR protein. J. Exp. Bot. 54: 513524.

Saarnijouki S. 1961. On muutakin visaa kuin koivun visaa! Metsataloudellinen Aidadauslehti. 6/7: 257259 276.

Sachs T Cohen D . 1982. Circular vessels and the control of vascular differentiation in plants. Differentiation 21: 2226.

Salo V Timonen T Harju P Saranpää P Saraja H . 2011. Anatomy of mazur-like wood in finnish conifers. In: Novitskaya LL (ed.) Structural and functional deviations from normal growth and development of plants under the influence of environmental factors: 272–277. KRC RASPetrozavodsk.

Sauter JJ Kloth S . 1986. Plasmodesmatal frequency and radial translocation rates in ray cells of poplar (Populus x canadensis Moench ‘robusta’). Planta 168: 377380.

Sauter JJ Kloth S . 1987. Changes in carbohydrates and ultrastructure in xylem ray cells of Populus in response to chilling. Protoplasma 137: 4555.

Sauter JJ van Cleve B . 1994. Storage, mobilization and interrelations of starch, sugars, protein and fat in the ray storage tissue of poplar trees. Trees 8: 297304.

Scholz A Klepsch M Karimi Z Jansen S . 2013. How to quantify conduits in wood? Front. Plant Sci. 4: article 56.

Schrader J Baba K May ST Palme K Bennett M Bhalerao RP Sandberg G . 2003. Polar auxin transport in the wood-forming tissues of hybrid aspen is under simultaneous control of developmental and environmental signals. PNAS 100: 1009610101.

Schreiber L. 2010. Transport barriers made of cutin, suberin and associated waxes. Trends Plant Sci. 15: 546553.

Schultz JC Appel HM Ferrieri AP Arnold TM . 2013. Flexible resource allocation during plant defense responses. Front. Plant Sci. 4: 324.

Sharon EM . 1973. Some histological features of Acer saccharum wood formed after wounding. Can. J. For. Res. 3: 8389.

Shchetinkin SV . 1987. Histogenesis of figured wood in birch (Betula pendula Roth var. carelica Merckl. and Betula pendula Roth). Cand. of Biology (PhD) Thesis. Voronezh.

Shigo AL Dudzik KR . 1985. Response of uninjured cambium to xylem injury. Wood Sci. Technol. 19: 195200.

Shnawa HA Muhsen MG Aldaeem DA Ibraheem IK Gumaa FM Saleh AI . 2011. Synthesis of barium tannate from eucalyptus bark and its use as a thermal stabilizer for poly(vinyl chloride). BioResources 6: 700706.

Sokolov NO . 1950. Karelian birch. The State Publishing House of the Karelian-Finnish SSRPetrozavodsk.

Sokolov NO . 1970. Selection and cultivation of Karelian birch in the Leningrad Region using natural seeding. In: Yermakov VI (ed.) Forest genetics selection and seed production: 277–281. Publishing House KareliaPetrozavodsk.

Sokołowska K Zagórska-Marek B . 2007. Seasonal changes in the degree of symplasmic continuity between the cells of cambial region of Acer pseudoplatanus and Ulmus minor . Acta Soc. Bot. Pol. 76: 277286.

Sokolowska K Zagorska-Marek B . 2012. Symplasmic, long-distance transport in xylem and cambial regions in branches of Acer pseudoplatanus (Aceraceae) and Populus tremula × P. tremuloides (Salicaceae). Am. J. Bot. 99: 17451755.

Srebotnik E Messner K . 1994. A simple method that uses differential staining and light microscopy to assess the selectivity of wood delignification by white rot fungi. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60: 13831386.

Stobbe H Schmitt U Eckstein D Dujesiefken D . 2002. Developmental stages on fine structure of surface callus formed after debarking of living lime trees (Tilia sp.). Ann. Bot. 89: 773782.

Sturm A. 1999. Invertases. Primary structures, functions, and roles in plant development and sucrose partitioning. Plant Physiol. 121: 18.

Sundberg B Uggla C Tuominen H . 2000. Cambial growth and auxin gradients. In: Savidge RA Barnett JR Napier N (eds.) Cell and molecular biology of wood formation: 169–188. BIOS Scientific Publishers LimitedOxford.

Tarelkina TV Novitskaya LL Galibina NA . 2015 The content of soluble sugars in trunk tissues of birch, alder and aspen in the experiment with exogenous sucrose. Proc. of KarRC of RAS. 12: 135142.

Thiéry G Bernier J Bergeron M . 1995. A simple technique for staining of cell membranes with imidazole and osmium tetroxide. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 43: 10791084.

Tippett JT Shigo AL . 1981. Barrier zone formation: a mechanism of tree defense against vascular pathogens. IAWA J. 2: 163168.

Tuominen H Puech L Fink S Sundberg B . 1997. A radial concentration gradient of indole- 3-acetic acid is related to secondary xylem development in hybrid aspen. Plant Physiol. 115: 577585.

Tuominen H Sitbon F Jacobsson C Sandberg G Olsson O Sundberg B . 1995. Altered growth and wood characteristics in transgenic hybrid aspen expressing Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA indoleacetic acid-biosynthetic genes. Plant Physiol. 109: 11791189.

Turgeon R Wolf S . 2009. Phloem transport: cellular pathways and molecular trafficking. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 60: 207221.

Turkina MV . 1961. Absorption of sucrose by the vascular tissues of plants. Russ. J. Plant Physiol. 8: 649657.

Uggla C Magel E Moritz T Sundberg B . 2001. Function and dynamics of auxin and carbohydrates during earlywood/latewood transition in Pinus sylvestris . Plant Physiol. 125: 20292039.

Van Bel AJE . 1990. Xylem-phloem exchange via the rays: the undervalued route of transport. J. Exp. Bot. 41: 631644.

Vickery RS Mercer FV . 1967. The uptake of sucrose by bean leaf tissue. II Kinetic experiments. Austral. J. Biol. Sci. 20: 565574.

Vintoniv IS Sopushynskyy IM Vintoniv RV . 2011. Some peculiarities of the structure of the sycamore maple with decorative-resonant wood (Acer pseudoplatanus L.). In: Novitskaya LL (ed.) Structural and functional deviations from normal growth and development of plants under the influence of environmental factors: 368–372. KRC RASPetrozavodsk.

Weakley B. 1975. A beginner’s handbook in biological electron microscopy. WorldMoscow.

Wood RKS . 1982. Active defense mechanisms in plants. SpringerBoston.

Yaman B. 2007. Anatomy of lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich.) wood with indented growth rings. Acta Biol. Cracov. Bot. 49: 1923.

Yermakov VI . 1986. Mechanisms of adaptation of birch in the North. ScienceLeningrad.

Zakrzewski J. 1983. Hormonal control of cambial activity and vessel differentiation in Quercus robur . Physiol. Plant. 57: 537542.

Zakrzewski J. 1991. Effect of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and sucrose on vessel size and density in isolated stem segments of oak (Quercus robur). Physiol. Plant. 81: 234238.

Ziegler H Merz W . 1961. Der ‘Hasel’wuchs über Beziehungen zwischen unregelmäßigem Dickenwachstum und Markstrahlverteilung. Holz Roh-Werkstoff 19: 18.

Zieminska K Butler DW Gleason SM Wright IJ Westoby M . 2013. Fibre wall and lumen fractions drive wood density variation across 24 Australian angiosperms. AoB Plants 5: plt046.

Ziemińska K Westoby M Wright IJ . 2015. Broad anatomical variation within a narrow wood density range – a study of twig wood across 69 Australian angiosperms. PLoS One 10: e0124892.

Zimmermann MH Ziegler H . 1975. List of sugars and sugar alcohols in sieve-tube exudates. In: Zimmermann MHMilburn JA (eds.) Encyclopedia of plant physiology NS Vol 1. Transport in plants: 480503. SpringerNew York.

Zuihina SP . 1975. Abnormal wood structure of white maple from Carpathian Mountains. In: Bare G Slep’an E (eds.) Problems of oncology and teratology of plants: 191–193. ScienceLeningrad.

Zuihina SP . 1976. Changes in microstructure of secondary xylem and phloem of white maple during birdseye wood formation. Proc. of MGUL 83: 212215.


  • View in gallery

    Schematic representation of chambers on a tree trunk: radial (A) and frontal (B) projections.

  • View in gallery

    Transverse sections of xylem formed in a chamber. – A: Populus tremula, treated with 100 g l-1 sucrose. – B: Alnus incana, treated with 100 g l-1 sucrose. – C: Betula pendula, treated with 50 g l-1 sucrose. – NX = normal xylem, MZ = middle zone, PZ = peripheral zone, lwPZ = lower subzone in the peripheral zone, upPZ = upper subzone in the peripheral zone, CZ = cambial zone. Double black arrow indicates xylem increment formed during the experiment.

  • View in gallery

    Parenchyma cells in the middle zone of Betula pendula. In the treatment with 25 g l-1 sucrose (A) the middle zone appeared as a layer of radially flattened cells (black-and-white arrows). 100 g l-1 (B) and 200 g l-1 (C) sucrose caused the formation of parenchyma layer in the middle zone (double white arrow). NX = normal xylem, PZ = peripheral zone, Phl = phloem, R = rays, V = vessels. – D: Tangential section through the middle zone, treated with 200 g L-1 sucrose. Black-and-white arrows indicate transverse cell walls of parenchyma cells, R = rays. – E: The cells had thick lignified walls (double white arrows) penetrated by pits (black arrows). – F: Cell lumina of parenchyma cells in MZ were filled with starch grains. Black-and-white arrows indicate cells with starch grains, R = cells of xylem ray.

  • View in gallery

    Parameters of vessels and rays in the peripheral zone of Betula pendula. – A: Number of rays and vessels per linear mm. – B: Histogram of vessel lumen area (μm2) distribution in the peripheral zone. – C: Width of uniseriate and biseriate rays (μm).

  • View in gallery

    – A: Club-shaped thickenings of Betula pendula xylem rays (black arrows). Treated with 200 g l-1 sucrose, transverse section. — B: Curly grain in the peripheral zone of Betula pendula xylem. Treated with 200 g l-1 sucrose, tangential section. — C: Layer of parenchyma cells in the middle zone of Alnus incana. Treated with 10 g l-1 sucrose, transverse section. NX = normal xylem, lwPZ = lower peripheral zone, R = rays, V = vessels, double white arrow indicates a layer of axial parenchyma in MZ. — D: Starch grains in cells of axial and ray parenchyma in the xylem of Alnus incana. Black-and-white arrows indicate rows of axial parenchyma cells, Rp = ray parenchyma cells. — E: Cells of scanty paratracheal parenchyma in the middle zone of Populus tremula. Variant with 200 g l-1 sucrose, transverse section. Double white arrow indicates MZ, black-and-white arrows point out cells of scanty paratracheal parenchyma. NX = normal xylem, PZ = peripheral zone, R = rays, V = vessels.

  • View in gallery

    – A & B: Number of rays and vessels per linear mm in upPZ of Alnus incana (A) and Populus tremula (B). – C & D: Histogram of vessel lumen area (μm2) distribution in the peripheral zone of Alnus incana (C) and Populus tremula (D). – E & F: Width of rays in upPZ of Alnus incana (E) and Populus tremula (F).

Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 27 27 23
Full Text Views 17 17 12
PDF Downloads 4 4 2
EPUB Downloads 1 1 0