Ice nucleation in stems of trees and shrubs with different frost resistance

in IAWA Journal
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Abstract

In this study, the ice nucleation activity (INA) and ice nucleation temperature (INT) as well as extracellular ice formation within the bark were determined for three woody species with different degrees of frost resistance, Betula nana, Betula albosinensis and Castanea sativa. Current-year stems and at least 2-year old stems of B. nana and C. sativa as well as current-year stems of B. albosinensis were compared, during summer (non-acclimated state) and winter (acclimated state), to evaluate possible ontogenetic and seasonal differences. Acclimated plant parts of the selected species revealed nearly similar results, with an INT from -7.52 to -8.43°C. The current-year stems of B. nana had a somewhat higher INT than the older stems. Microscopic analysis showed that extra-cellular ice formation occurred in the intercellular spaces within the bark of stems of B. nana, B. albosinensis and C. sativa. Size of the intercellular spaces of the bark were species-specific, and B. nana showed the largest intercellular space volume. While freezing behavior and extracellular ice formation thus followed principally the same pattern in all considered species, B. nana is obviously capable of dealing with large masses of extracellular ice which accumulate over extended periods of frost, making B. nana capable of protecting living tissue in colder regions from freezing damage.

Ice nucleation in stems of trees and shrubs with different frost resistance

in IAWA Journal

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References

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Figures

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    A: Distribution of ice nucleation activity (INA) shown as cumulative percentage of frozen tubes. – B: Cumulative ice nucleation showing K'(T) (ice nuclei per g fresh weight) for BNYS, BNOS, BNYW, BNOW, BAYW, CSYW and CSOW.

  • View in gallery

    Distribution of ice nucleation activity of BNYS, BNOS, BNYW, BNOW, BAYW, CSYW and CSOW.

  • View in gallery

    Microscopy images of fresh and frozen cross sections of stems. The arrows point at intercellular spaces filled with air (white) or ice (blue). Red arrows indicate sites that are enlarged in Figure 4. – A: fresh BNYS. – B: fresh BNYW. – C: frozen BNYW. – D: fresh BNOS. – E: fresh BNOW. – F: frozen BNOW. – G: fresh BAYW. – H: frozen BAYW. – I: fresh CSYW. – J: frozen CSYW. – K: fresh BAOW. – L: frozen BAOW. – M: fresh CSOW. – N: frozen CSOW. – Scale bars = 250 μm.

  • View in gallery

    Detailed view of intercellular spaces of the bark (as indicated in Figure 3 by red arrows). Arrows point at intercellular spaces filled with air (white) or ice (blue). – A: fresh BNYS. – B: fresh BNYW. – C: frozen BNYW. – D: fresh BNOS. – E: fresh BNOW. – F: frozen BNOW. – G: fresh BAYW. – H: frozen BAYW. – I: fresh CSYW. – J: frozen CSYW. – K: fresh BAOW. – L: frozen BAOW. – M: fresh CSOW. – N: frozen CSOW. — Scale bars = 100 μm.

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