Physiological changes during heartwood formation in young Eucalyptus bosistoana trees

In: IAWA Journal

ABSTRACT

Eucalyptus bosistoana F. Muell. is valued for its naturally durable heartwood. As part of an E. bosistoana breeding programme, we have tested the hypothesis that there is a prolonged transition from sapwood to heartwood in young trees, resulting in a wide transition zone. This needs to be considered when assessing trees for heartwood quantity and quality. Heartwood formation was investigated in radial profiles in cores from bark to bark of 6-year-old trees with conventional and confocal microscopy, and with a range of different staining techniques that visualised the physiological changes taking place in the parenchyma cells. Using immunolabelling with antibodies against histone proteins and α-tubulin, histochemical staining using potassium iodide (I3-KI) and fluorescence emission spectral scanning, we demonstrated that in heartwood nuclei, microtubules, reserve materials (starch) and vacuoles were absent. The observations revealed that 6-year-old E. bosistoana trees contained heartwood. The loss of water conductivity by tyloses formation and the death of the parenchyma cells occurred in close proximity resulting in a transition zone of ~1 cm.

  • Altaner CM Murray TJ Morgenroth J . 2017. Durable eucalypts on drylands: protecting and enhancing value. Workshop Proceedings 2017. New Zealand School of ForestryUniversity of Canterbury.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AS5604. 2005. Timber – Natural durability ratings: Standards Australia Sydney.

  • Atale N Gupta S Yadav UCS Rani V . 2014. Cell-death assessment by fluorescent and nonfluorescent cytosolic and nuclear staining techniques. J. Microscopy 255: 719.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bamber R. 1976. Heartwood, its function and formation. Wood Sci. Technol. 10: 18.

  • Bamber R Fukazawa K . 1985. Sapwood and heartwood: A review. Forestry Abstracts 46: 567580.

  • Begum S Nakaba S Yamagishi Y Oribe Y Funada R . 2013. Regulation of cambial activity in relation to environmental conditions: understanding the role of temperature in wood formation of trees. Physiol. Plant. 147: 4654.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bootle KR . 2005. Wood in Australia: types, properties, and uses. Ed. 2. McGraw-HillAustralia.

  • Chattaway MM . 1949. The development of tyloses and secretion of gum in heartwood formation. Austral. J. Biol. Sci. 2: 227240.

  • Clark JW Scheffer TC . 1983. Natural decay resistance of the heartwood of coast redwood Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. For. Products J. 33: 1520.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Conde E Cadahía E García-Vallejo M de Simón MF . 1995. Polyphenolic composition of wood extracts from Eucalyptus camaldulensis E. globulus and E. rudis. Holzforschung 49: 411417.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Foster RC . 1964. Fine structure of tyloses. Nature 204: 494495.

  • Foster RC . 1967. Fine structure of tyloses in three species of the Myrtaceae. Austral. J. Bot. 15: 2534.

  • Fukuda H. 2000. Programmed cell death of tracheary elements as a paradigm in plants. Plant Mol. Biol. 44: 245253.

  • Funada R. 2000. Control of wood structure. In: Nick P (ed.) Plant microtubules: 51–81. SpringerHeidelberg, Berlin.

  • Hillis W. 1972. Formation and properties of some wood extractives. Phytochemistry 11: 12071218.

  • Hillis W. 1987. Heartwood and tree exudates. SpringerNew York.

  • Hillis W. 1991. Eucalypts: chemistry, uses. Appita J. 44: 239244.

  • Committee IAWA . 1964. Multilingual glossary of terms used in wood anatomy. KonkordiaWinterthur, Switzerland. 186 pp.

  • Islam MA Begum S . 2011. Distribution of starch, lipid and nuclei in xylem and phloem of Tectona grandis Linn. J. Bio-Science 19: 2935.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Islam MA Begum S Nakaba S Funada R . 2012. Distribution and pattern of availability of storage starch and cell death of ray parenchyma cells of a conifer tree (Larix kaempferi). Res. J. Recent Sci. 1: 2837.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones T Meder R Low C O’Callahan D Chittenden C Ebdon N Thumm A Riddell M . 2011. Natural durability of the heartwood of coast redwood [Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.] and its prediction using near infrared spectroscopy. J. Near Infrared Spectroscopy 19: 381389.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Koch G Kleist G . 2001. Application of scanning UV microspectrophotometry to localise lignins and phenolic extractives in plant cell walls. Holzforschung 55: 563567.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kuriyama H Fukuda H . 2002. Developmental programmed cell death in plants. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 5: 568573.

  • Lukmandaru G Takahashi K . 2009. Radial distribution of quinones in plantation teak (Tectonia grandis L. f.). Ann. For. Sci. 66: 605. https://doi.org/10.1051/forest/2009051.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Moya R Bond B Quesada H . 2014. A review of heartwood properties of Tectona grandis trees from fast-growth plantations. Wood Sci. Technol. 48: 411433.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nakaba S Begum S Yamagishi Y Jin H Kubo T Funada R . 2012a. Differences in the timing of cell death, differentiation and function among three different types of ray parenchyma cells in the hardwood Populus sieboldii × P. grandidentata . Trees 26: 743750.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nakaba S Kubo T Funada R . 2008a. Differences in patterns of cell death between ray parenchyma cells and ray tracheids in the conifers Pinus densiflora and Pinus rigida . Trees 22: 623.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nakaba S Kubo T Funada R . 2011. Nuclear DNA fragmentation during cell death of short-lived ray tracheids in the conifer Pinus densiflora . J. Plant Res. 124: 379384.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nakaba S Sano Y Funada R . 2013. Disappearance of microtubules, nuclei and starch during cell death of ray parenchyma in Abies sachalinensis . IAWA J. 34: 135146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nakaba S Yamagishi Y Sano Y Funada R . 2012b. Temporally and spatially controlled death of parenchyma cells is involved in heartwood formation in pith regions of branches of Robinia pseudoacacia var. inermis. J. Wood Sci. 58: 6976.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nakaba S Yoshimoto J Kubo T Funada R . 2008b. Morphological changes in the cytoskeleton, nuclei, and vacuoles during cell death of short-lived ray tracheids in the conifer Pinus densiflora . J. Wood Sci. 54: 509514.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nic-Can G Hernández-Castellano S Kú-González A Loyola-Vargas VM De-la-Peña C . 2013. An efficient immunodetection method for histone modifications in plants. Plant Methods 9: 47.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Plomion C Leprovost G Stokes A . 2001. Wood formation in trees. Plant Physiol. 127: 15131523.

  • Resch H Arganbright DG . 1968. Variation of specific gravity, extractive content, and tracheid length in redwood trees. For. Sci. 14: 148155.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rudman P. 1964. Durability in the genus Eucalyptus . Austral. For. 28: 242257.

  • Sherrard EC Kurth EF . 1933. Distribution of extractive in redwood - its relation to durability. Indust. & Engin. Chem. 25: 300302.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Taylor AM Gartner BL Morrell JJ . 2002. Heartwood formation and natural durability -A review. Wood & Fiber Sci. 34: 587611.

  • Wardrop A Cronshaw T . 1962. Formation of phenolic substances in the ray parenchyma of angiosperms. Nature 193: 9092.

  • Wiedenhoeft AC Miller RB . 2005. Structure and function of wood. In: Rowell RM (ed.) Handbook of Wood Chemistry and Wood Composites. Ed. 2: 933. Taylor & Francis GroupNew York.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wilkes J. 1984. The influence of rate of growth on the density and heartwood extractives content of eucalypt species. Wood Sci. & Technol. 18: 113120.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ziegler H. 1968. Biological aspects of heartwood formation. Holz Roh- Werkstoff 2: 6168.

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 168 137 0
Full Text Views 216 206 13
PDF Downloads 93 87 7