Miocene Casuarinaceae wood from Landslip Hill, Southland, New Zealand

In: IAWA Journal

ABSTRACT

Angiosperm wood from the Miocene Landslip Hill silcrete, Southland, New Zealand is described. It is characterised by solitary vessels of two distinct size classes; rays of two size classes alongside aggregate rays; simple perforation plates; and axial parenchyma in tangential bands up to three cells wide. The wood has features similar to Casuarinaceae and is described here as a new species, Casuarinoxylon ildephonsi. The fossils were collected as isolated fragments of wood; there is no directly associated cladode or cone material although isolated fragments of these are common elsewhere in the Landslip Hill silcrete. This is the second record of fossil Casuarinaceae wood from New Zealand and the first sample to be anatomically described. Currently, Casuarinaceae does not occur in New Zealand. Casuarinoxylon ildephonsi would have grown in a warm temperate to subtropical climate on an open deltaic floodplain.

  • ArchangelskyS.1973. Palinologia del paleoceno de Chubut. 1. Descripciones sistematicas. Ameghiniana10: 339399.

  • CampbellJD. 1985. Casuarinaceae, Fagaceae, and other plant megafossils from Kaikorai Leaf Beds (Miocene) Kaikorai Valley, DunedinNew Zealand. New Zealand J. Bot.23: 311320. DOI: .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CampbellJD. 2002. Angiosperm fruit and leaf fossils from Miocene silcrete, Landslip Hill, northern Southland, New Zealand. J. Roy. Soc. New Zealand32: 149154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03014223.2002.9517687

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CampbellJDHoldenAM. 1984. Miocene casuarinacean fossils from Southland and Central OtagoNew Zealand. New Zealand J. Bot.22: 159167. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0028825X.1984.10425242

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ChristophelDC. 1980. Occurrence of Casuarina megafossils in the Tertiary of south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Botany28(2): 249259. https://doi.org/10.1071/BT 9800249.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • CoetzeeJAPraglowskiJ. 1984. Pollen evidence for the occurrence of Casuarina and Myrica in the Tertiary of South Africa. Grana23: 2341. DOI: .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ConranJGJacksonJALeeDEKennedyEM. 2017. Gleichenia-like Korallipteris alineae sp. nov. macrofossils (Polypodiophyta) from the Miocene Landslip Hill silcrete, New Zealand. New Zealand J. Bot.55: 258275. https://doi.org/10.1080/0028825X.2017.1317278.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • EdwardsWN. 1931. Fossilium Catalogus II: Plantae. Pars 17 Dicotyledones (Ligna). W. JunkPublishers, Berlin.

  • FergusonDKLeeDEBannisterJMZetterRJordanGJVavraNMildenhallDC. 2010. The taphonomy of a remarkable leaf bed assemblage from the Late Oligocene–Early Miocene Gore Lignite Measures, southern New Zealand. Intern. J. Coal Geol.83: 173181.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gaivoronskij VGG [in Russian]. 1962. A Caucasian Casuarina. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR142: 453455.

  • GreberE.1997. Stratigraphic evolution and tectonics in an area of high seismicity: Akyazi/Adapazari (Pontides, Northwestern Turkey). In: SchindlerCPfisterM (eds.) Active tectonics of northwestern Anatolia: the Marmara poly-project: a multidisciplinary approach by space-geodesy geology hydrogeology geothermics and seismology: 141160. VDF Hochschulverlag AGZürich.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GuerinGHillRS. 2003. Gymnostoma tasmanianum sp. nov., a fossil Casuarinaceae from the Early Oligocene of Little Rapid River, Tasmania, Australia. Intern. J. Plant Sci. 164: 629634. DOI: .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HofmannE.1944. Pflanzenreste aus dem Phosphoritvorkommen von Prambachkirchen in Oberdonau 1. Palaeontographica Abt. B88: 186.

  • HoldenAM. 1983. Studies in New Zealand Oligocene and Miocene plant macrofossils. Unpublished PhD thesis. Victoria UniversityWellington, NZ.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • IAWA Committee. 1989. IAWA List of microscopic features for hardwood identification. IAWA Bull. n. s.10: 219332. DOI: .

  • InsideWood. 2004 -onwards. Published on the Internet. http://insidewood.lib.ncsu.edu/search, accessed on 4/09/2018.

    • Export Citation
  • JacksonJA. 2015. A study of plant fossils from Landslip Hill silcrete. Unpublished MSc thesis. University of Otago, Dunedin.

  • JohnsonLASWilsonKL. 1993. Casuarinaceae. In: KubitzkiKRohwerJGBittrichV (eds.) The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants Vol. 2. Flowering plants. Dicotyledons: Magnoliid Hamamelid and Caryophyllid Families: 237242. Springer-VerlagBerlin. DOI: .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JordanGJ. 1997. Evidence of Pleistocene plant extinction and diversity from Regatta Point, western TasmaniaAustralia. Bot. J. Linn. Soc.123: 4571. DOI: .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KramerK.1974. Die tertiären Hölzer Südost-Asiens (Unter Ausschluss der Dipterocarpaceae). 1. Palaeontographica Abt. B144: 45181.

  • LeeDELeeWGMortimerN. 2001. Where and why have all the flowers gone? Depletion and turnover in the New Zealand Cenozoic angiosperm flora in relation to palaeogeography and climate. Austral. J. Bot.49: 341356. DOI: .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LeeDELindqvistJKDouglasBBannisterJMCieraadE. 2003. Field trip 9. Paleobotany and sedimentology of Late Cretaceous–Miocene nonmarine sequences in Otago and Southland. In: CoxSSmith LyttleB (eds.) Geological Society of New Zealand Inc. 2003 annual conference 1– 4 Dec: FT2FT48. Geological Society of New Zealand, Miscellaneous Publication, University of Dunedin, Otago.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • LindqvistJK. 1990. Deposition and diagenesis of Landslip Hill silcrete, Gore Lignite Measures (Miocene)New Zealand. New Zealand J. Geol. Geophys.33: 137150. http://dx.doi.org/DOI:10.1080/00288306.1990.10427579.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mädel-AngeliewaE.1968. Eichenund Pappelholz aus der pliozänen Kohle im Gebiet von Baccinello (Toskana, Italien). Geol. Jb.86: 433470.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MennegaAMW. 1969. The wood structure of Dicranostyles (Convolvulaceae). Acta Bot. Neerl.18: 173179.

  • MetcalfeCRChalkL. 1950. Anatomy of the Dicotyledons Vol. II. Clarendon PressOxford.

  • MildenhallDC. 1980. New Zealand Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic plant biogeography: a contribution. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimat. Palaeoecol.31: 197233. DOI: .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MildenhallDCPocknallDT. 1989. Miocene–Pleistocene spores and pollen from Central Otago, South IslandNew Zealand. New Zealand Geol. Surv. Paleontol. Bull.59: 1128.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MoorePRWallaceR. 2000. Petrified wood from the Miocene volcanic sequence of Coromandel Peninsula, northern New Zealand. J. Roy. Soc. New Zealand30: 115130. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03014223.2000.9517612.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MoseleyMFJr. 1948. Comparative anatomy and phylogeny of the Casuarinaceae. Bot. Gaz.110: 231280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/335531.

  • Müller-StollWRMädel-AngeliewaE. 1984. Fossile Hölzer mit schmalen apotrachealen Parenchymbändern. III. Die Sapotaceae-Gattung Chrysophylloxylon gen. nov. Feddes Repert.95: 169181.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • PattonRT. 1958. Fossil wood from Victorian brown coal. Proc. Roy. Soc. Victoria (N.S.)70: 129143.

  • PocknallDTMildenhallDC. 1984. Late Oligocene – early Miocene spores and pollen from SouthlandNew Zealand. New Zealand Geol. Surv. Paleontol. Bull.51: 166.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RaineJIMildenhallDCKennedyEM. 2011. New Zealand fossil spores and pollen: an illustrated catalogue. Ed.3. http://www.gns.cri.nz/what/earthhist/fossils/spore_pollen/catalog/index.htm accessed on 30 August 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ScrivenLJHillRS. 1995. Macrofossil Casuarinaceae: their identification and the oldest macrofossil record, Gymnostoma antiquum sp. nov., from the Late Paleocene of New South WalesAustralia. Austral. Syst. Bot.8: 10351053.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SelmeierA.2001. Silicified Miocene woods from the North Bohemian Basin (Czech Republic) and from Kuzuluk, district Adapazari (Turkey). Mitt. Bayer. Staatssamml. Paläontol. u. Hist. Geol.41: 111144.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ShimakuraM.1937. Studies on fossil woods from Japan and adjacent lands. II. The Cretaceous woods from Japan, Saghalien and Manchoukuo. Science Reports of the Tohoku University, 2nd SeriesGeology19: 173.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • StacheG.1855. De Casuarinis nunc viventibus et fossilibus nonnulla. Dissertatio inauguralis palaeontologica-botanika. Typis CH Storchii et SociiBreslau. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/hvd.32044107231680.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SteaneDAWilsonKLHillRS. 2003. Using matK sequence data to unravel the phylogeny of Casuarinaceae. Molec. Phylogen. Evol.28: 4759. DOI: .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TruswellEM. 1990. Cretaceous and Tertiary vegetation of Antarctica: a palynological perspective. In: TaylorTNTaylorEL (eds.) Antarctic paleobiology: its role in the reconstruction of Gondwana: 7188. SpringerNew York. DOI: .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • TurnbullIMAlliboneAH (compilers). 2003. Geology of the Murihiku Area. Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences 1: 250000 geological map 20. 1 sheet and 74 p. Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Ltd, Lower HuttNew Zealand.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • VannerMRConranJGBannisterJMLeeDE. 2018. Cenozoic conifer wood from the Gore Lignite Measures, Southland, New Zealand. New Zealand J. Bot. 56: 291310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0028825X.2018.1480049.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WheelerEA. 2011. InsideWood – a web resource for hardwood anatomy. IAWA J.32: 199211.

  • WheelerEALeeMMattenLC. 1987. Dicotyledonous woods from the Upper Cretaceous of southern Illinois. Bot. J. Linn. Soc.95: 77100. DOI: .

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WilsonKLJohnsonCAS. 1981. Casuarinaceae. In: GeorgeAS (ed.) Flora of Australia Vol. 3: Hamamelidales to Casuarinales: 100174. Australian Gov. Publ. ServiceCanberra.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • WoodBL. 1956. The geology of the Gore Subdivision. New Zealand Geol. Surv. Bull. No. 53. 127 pp. DSIRWellington, NZ.

  • ZamaloaMDGandolfoMAGonzálezCCRomeroEJCúneoNRWilfP. 2006. Casuarinaceae from the Eocene of PatagoniaArgentina. Intern. J. Plant Sci.167: 12791289.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 57 57 18
Full Text Views 12 12 2
PDF Downloads 9 9 1