A Steady Race towards Better Compliance with International Humanitarian Law? The ICTR 1995–2012

in International Criminal Law Review
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  • 1 Freie Universität Berlin, Germany

This article reviews the legacy of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) under a specific compliance perspective and asks whether the Tribunal’s jurisprudence furthered the adherence to norms of international criminal and humanitarian law. The Tribunal’s impact on the circulation, emergence and enforcement, of the prohibitions of genocide and other serious violations of international humanitarian law will thus be scrutinised. Furthermore, the legitimacy of the ICTR’s jurisprudence plays a major role as human beings not only follow a logic of consequence but also a logic of appropriateness. This combined approach will show that the ICTR – despite its shortcomings – has furthered compliance by diffusing the norms of international criminal and humanitarian law not only to Rwanda and the Great Lakes Region, but also to the international community.

  • 3

    UNSC Res. 955 (1994), Preambular paras. 8 and 7.

  • 13

    Schmelzle, supra note 8, p. 10.

  • 15

    Hurd, supra note 11, p 386.

  • 16

    Lamont, supra note 14, p. 16.

  • 17

    Schmelzle, supra note 8, p. 10.

  • 18

    Lamont, supra note 14, p. 18.

  • 23

    Hurd, supra note 11, pp. 388 et seq.

  • 27

    Amann, ibid., p. 120, stresses the fact that ‘[p]unishment not only deprives a criminal of liberty, but also signals the existence and extent of societal reproach’.

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  • 31

    Amann, supra note 26, p. 122, underlines that unenforced law does not render the law meaningless but still exerts an ‘expressive effect’.

  • 40

    Krieger, supra note 26, p. 11; International Committee of the Red Cross, ‘The Roots of Behaviour in War – Understanding and Preventing IHL Violations’, 2004, pp. 6 et seq., <www.icrc.org/eng/assets/files/other/icrc_002_0853.pdf>, 8 January 2014.

  • 46

    Gallimore, supra note 41.

  • 47

    Amann, supra note 26, p. 116.

  • 50

    Møse, supra note 43, p. 932 et seq.: ‘There can be no doubt that the Tribunal’s proceedings relating to persons in very high positions have sent a strong signal to the world, including the African continent, that impunity will not be accepted by the international community’.

  • 54

    Nmaju, supra note 41, pp. 367 et seq.

  • 73

    Cerone, supra note 68, p. 191.

  • 77

    Gregory Townsend, ‘Epilogue to Hotel Rwanda’, ASIL Insight, 7 December 2011, 15 (32).

  • 85

    Bergsmo and Webb, supra note 32, p. 351–352.

  • 86

    Møse, supra note 43, p. 936.

  • 95

    Gallimore, supra note 41, p. 246.

  • 99

    Jallow, supra note 41, p. 272.

  • 108

    Gallimore, supra note 41, p. 247.

  • 109

    MacKinnon, supra note 101, p. 22; Gabriela Mischkowski and Gorana Mlinarevic, ‘…and that it does not happen to anyone anywhere in the world’ The Trouble with Rape Trials, Study Medica Mondiale e.V., December 2009, p. 39, <www.medicamondiale.org/fileadmin/content/07_Infothek/Gerechtigkeit/medica_mondiale_Zeuginnenstudie_englisch_december_2009.pdf>, 8 January 2014.

  • 110

    Jallow, supra note 41, p. 273.

  • 119

    Zahar, supra note 111, p. 36.

  • 125

    Shannon E. Powers, ‘Rwanda’s Gacaca Courts: Implications for International Criminal Law and Transitional Justice’, ASIL Insight, 23 June 2011, Vol. 15, Issue 17; see Alison Des Forges and Timothy Longman, ‘Legal Responses to Genocide in Rwanda’, in Eric Stover and Harvey M. Weinstein (eds.), My Neighbor, My Enemy: Justice and Community in the Aftermath of Mass Atrocity (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2004), pp. 49–68, at p. 56.

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  • 134

    Dieng, supra note 131, p. 408.

  • 136

    Dieng, supra note 131, p. 409.

  • 140

    S/RES 955 (1994), preamble para. 9.

  • 141

    Caroll, supra note 52, p. 172; United States Institute for Peace, Rwanda, Accountability for War Crimes and Genocide, 1995, p. 14, <www.usip.org/sites/default/files/SR13.pdf>, 8 January 2014. But see Inneke Onsea, ‘The Legacy of the ICTR in Rwanda in the Context of the Completion Strategy: The Impact of Rule 11bis’, in Cedric Ryngaert (ed.), The Effectiveness of International Criminal Justice (Intersentia, Antwerp, 2009), pp. 173–194, at p. 174, who speaks of 237 remaining out of formerly 600 judges, as does Human Rights Watch, Law and Reality: Progress in Judicial Reform in Rwanda, 2008, p. 12, <www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/rwanda0708webwcover.pdf>, 8 January 2014.

  • 142

    In 1994, 10,000 people were detained in Rwanda, in 1998 the count was already at 130,000 detainees, i.e. 1,000 to 3,000 people were arrested every month, see L. Daniell Tully, ‘Note: Human Rights Compliance and the Gacaca Jurisdictions in Rwanda’, 26 Boston College International and Comparative Law Review (2003) 385–414, at p. 389; Payam Akhavan, ‘The Trials of Concurrent Jurisdiction’, 7 Duke Journal of Comparative and International Law (1997) 349–374, at p. 357, speaks of 90,000 in 1997; and Ngoga, supra note 139, p. 324, even speaks of 200,000 in 1996.

  • 144

    Caroll, supra note 52, p. 188.

  • 147

    Amnesty International, supra note 146.

  • 152

    Powers, supra note 125.

  • 156

    Neuffer, supra note 149.

  • 157

    Westberg, supra note 42, p. 353.

  • 158

    Caroll, supra note 52, p. 192.

  • 167

    Nsanzuwera, supra note 41, p. 948.

  • 169

    Onsea, supra note 141, p. 189.

  • 174

     E.g. OLG Frankfurt, 6 November 2008, 2. Strafsenat, Ausl A 106/08, BeckRS 2008, 23907; Vincent Brown aka Vincent Bajinja et al. v. The Government of Rwanda and The Secretary of State for the Home Department, 8 April 2009, High Court of Justice, Divisional Court, CO/6247/2008; Ministère Public v. Marcel Z, 23 October 2008, Cour d’Appel de Toulouse, Chambre de l’instruction, no. 2008/00029; Ministère Public v. Claver Kamana, 10 January 2009, Cour d’Appel de  Lyon,  <www.rnanews.com/politics/846-france-refus-dextrader-un-gcidaire-prm>, 1 October 2013, the Swiss and the Finnish governments refused equally to extradite, see Decision on Request for Extradition of the Finnish Ministry of Justice in the Case of Francois Bazaramba, 20 February 2009 and ‘An extradition to Rwanda is impossible’, 1 July 2009, <www.iol.co.za/news/africa/an-extradition-to-rwanda-is-impossible-1.448136#.Uk7EvVMzKK4>, 1 October 2013; different Sweden: Sylvère Ahorugeze v. Riksåklagaren, 26 May 2009, Högsta Domstolen, Ö 1082-09. In that particular case, Sylvère Ahurogeze v. Sweden, 27 October 2011, European Court of Human Rights, no. 37075/09, <hudoc.echr.coe.int/sites/eng/pages/search.aspx?i=001-107183>, 8 January 2014, the ECtHR ruled that the extradition would not violate the ECHR.

  • 192

    Dieng, supra note 131, p. 420.

  • 206

    Gallimore, supra note 41, p. 252.

  • 207

    Caroll, supra note 52, p. 193.

  • 215

    Gallimore, supra note 41, p. 258.

  • 218

    Caroll, supra note 52, p. 179.

  • 220

    Gallimore, supra note 41, p. 254.

  • 225

    Schmelzle, supra note 8, p. 11.

  • 235

    Jallow, supra note 41, p. 270. See also The Prosecutor v. Jean-Paul Akayesu, ibid., paras. 81 et seq.

  • 244

    Von Bogdandy and Venzke, supra note 22, pp. 25–27.

  • 247

    UNSC Res. 1165 (1998).

  • 249

    Møse, supra note 43, p. 922, note 7.

  • 251

    Caroll, supra note 52, p. 181 et seq.

  • 252

    Møse, supra note 43, pp. 924, 930 et seq.

  • 254

    Caroll, supra note 52, p. 183.

  • 255

    UNSC Res. 1431 (2002).

  • 256

    Caroll, supra note 52, p. 195.

  • 260

    Møse, supra note 43, p. 931.

  • 267

    Caroll, supra note 52, p. 180.

  • 276

    Gallimore, supra note 33, p. 240.

  • 278

    Nsanzuwera, supra note 41, p. 946.

  • 280

    Dieng, supra note 131, p. 412.

  • 281

    Møse, supra note 43, p. 937.

  • 287

    Von Bogdandy and Venzke, supra note 22, p. 37.

  • 289

    Van den Herik, supra note 58, pp. 184 et seq.

  • 292

    Akhavan, supra note 56, p. 999.

  • 306

    Schomburg, supra note 258, p. 2.

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