Widespread sexual violence was a feature of Democratic Kampuchea, whether during forced marriages, as an instrument of torture, or as a systematic feature of Khmer Rouge policy, with rape often the precursor to execution. Since it was established, the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (eccc) has secured a single conviction of sexual violence. This article draws on the eccc’s jurisprudence and decisions of other international criminal tribunals to argue that, to date, the eccc has made little contribution to the development of the legal framework surrounding sexual violence. However, there remain several possibilities for it to do so.
See Vickerysupra note 15 p. 175; contrast Studzinsky supra note 1 p. 91; Cambodian Defenders Project Women’s Hearing: True Voices of Women Under the Khmer Rouge: Report on the Proceedings of the 2011 Women’s Hearing on Sexual Violence Under the Khmer Rouge Regime Phnom Penh 2011 p. 5 15 December 2014; Theresa de Langis and Silke Studzinsky ‘Briefing Paper on the eccc the Cambodian Women’s Hearing and Steps for Addressing Sexual Violence under the Khmer Rouge’ 2012 pp. 4–5 vawecccmay2012FinalProof-2.pdf> 13 May 2014.
Vickerysupra note 15 p. 175; Studzinsky supra note 1 p. 91. This view was reflected in Closing Order supra note 13 paras. 1428–1429.
Kasumi NakagawaGender-Based Violence During the Khmer Rouge Regime: Stories of Survivors from the Democratic Kampuchea p. 19<www.civilparties.org/?p=1055> 13 May 2014; Anderson supra note 16 p. 790; Cambodian Defenders Project supra note 17 p. 5.
Nakagawaibid. p. 19; De Langis and Studzinsky supra note 17 pp. 4–5; Anderson supra note 16 p. 790 cites Kalyanee E Mam Democratic Kampuchea (1975–1979): Women as Instruments for Change (Documentation Center of Cambodia Phnom Penh 2000).
For examplesee Prosecutorv. Anto Furundzijasupra note 45 para. 184: ‘It is not a question of criminalising acts which were not criminal when they were committed by the accused since forcible oral sex is in any event a crime and indeed an extremely serious crime’.
Charlesworth and Chinkinsupra note 3 p. 292. See also Valerie Oosterveld ‘Sexual Slavery and the International Criminal Court: Advancing International Law’ 25 Michigan Journal of International Law (2004) 605–651 p. 605 discussing why the inclusion of sexual slavery as distinct from enslavement was necessary.
Copelon supra note 48 p. 234recounting the demands of the Women’s Caucus during the negotiations for the Rome Statute that ‘sexual violence must be seen as part of and encompassed by other recognised egregious forms of violence’.
Closing Ordersupra note 13 para. 1408.
Trial Chamber Memorandumsupra note 52. For a criticism of this decision see Silke Studzinsky ‘Comments in Response to the Inclusion of Sexual Crimes in Case 002/2’ Civil Parties Before the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia 9 April 2014 <www.civilparties.org/?p=1686> 17 June 2014.
Nakagawasupra note 20 p. 21; Studzinsky supra note 1 p. 99.
Studzinskysupra note 1 pp. 92–93; Toy-Cronin supra note 105 p. 552.
Closing Ordersupra note 13 paras. 1443–1444.
Closing Ordersupra note 13 para. 855.
Peg LeVinesupra note 104; Toy-Cronin supra note 105 paras. 555–556; Transcultural Psychosocial Organization Cambodia ‘Like Ghost Changes Body: A Study on the Impact of Forced Marriage under the Khmer Rouge Regime’ October 2014 p. 61 tpo_October_2014.pdf> 15 December 2014.
Jainibid. pp. 1013–1032; Toy-Cronin supra note 105. Contrast Studzinsky’s approach supra note 1 p. 99; Rachel Slater ‘Gender Violence or Violence Against Women? The Treatment of Forced Marriage in Special Court for Sierra Leone’ 13(2) Melbourne Journal of International Law (2012) 732–773 p. 732; Scharf and Mattler supra note 107.
De Brouwer et al. (eds.)supra note 5 p. 64; Chile Eboe-Osuji ‘Superior Responsibility for the Rape of Women during Armed Conflict’ in International Law and Sexual Violence in Armed Conflicts (Koninklijke Brill Leiden 2012).
Closing Ordersupra note 13 paras. 1065 1181 1428.
Closing Ordersupra note 13 paras. 1426–1427.
Studzinskysupra note 1 p. 91; on interrogations regarding immorality see Closing Order supra note 13 para. 191.