The Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia: Developing the Law on Sexual Violence?

in International Criminal Law Review
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Widespread sexual violence was a feature of Democratic Kampuchea, whether during forced marriages, as an instrument of torture, or as a systematic feature of Khmer Rouge policy, with rape often the precursor to execution. Since it was established, the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (eccc) has secured a single conviction of sexual violence. This article draws on the eccc’s jurisprudence and decisions of other international criminal tribunals to argue that, to date, the eccc has made little contribution to the development of the legal framework surrounding sexual violence. However, there remain several possibilities for it to do so.

The Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia: Developing the Law on Sexual Violence?

in International Criminal Law Review

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17

 See Vickerysupra note 15 p. 175; contrast Studzinsky supra note 1 p. 91; Cambodian Defenders Project Women’s Hearing: True Voices of Women Under the Khmer Rouge: Report on the Proceedings of the 2011 Women’s Hearing on Sexual Violence Under the Khmer Rouge Regime Phnom Penh 2011 p. 5 15 December 2014; Theresa de Langis and Silke Studzinsky ‘Briefing Paper on the eccc the Cambodian Women’s Hearing and Steps for Addressing Sexual Violence under the Khmer Rouge’ 2012 pp. 4–5 vawecccmay2012FinalProof-2.pdf> 13 May 2014.

19

Vickerysupra note 15 p. 175; Studzinsky supra note 1 p. 91. This view was reflected in Closing Order supra note 13 paras. 1428–1429.

20

Kasumi NakagawaGender-Based Violence During the Khmer Rouge Regime: Stories of Survivors from the Democratic Kampuchea p. 19 <www.civilparties.org/?p=1055> 13 May 2014; Anderson supra note 16 p. 790; Cambodian Defenders Project supra note 17 p. 5.

21

Nakagawaibid. p. 19; De Langis and Studzinsky supra note 17 pp. 4–5; Anderson supra note 16 p. 790 cites Kalyanee E Mam Democratic Kampuchea (19751979): Women as Instruments for Change (Documentation Center of Cambodia Phnom Penh 2000).

28

David Scheffer‘The Toughest Cockfight’ in All the Missing Souls: A Personal History of the War Crimes Tribunals (Princeton University Press Princeton 2012) pp. 341–405.

33

Chandler‘Voices from S-21’supra note 15 p. 131.

34

Beckersupra note 15 p. 224.

51

For examplesee Prosecutor v. Anto Furundzijasupra note 45 para. 184: ‘It is not a question of criminalising acts which were not criminal when they were committed by the accused since forcible oral sex is in any event a crime and indeed an extremely serious crime’.

54

Charlesworth and Chinkinsupra note 3 p. 292. See also Valerie Oosterveld ‘Sexual Slavery and the International Criminal Court: Advancing International Law’ 25 Michigan Journal of International Law (2004) 605–651 p. 605 discussing why the inclusion of sexual slavery as distinct from enslavement was necessary.

55

Copelon supra note 48 p. 234 recounting the demands of the Women’s Caucus during the negotiations for the Rome Statute that ‘sexual violence must be seen as part of and encompassed by other recognised egregious forms of violence’.

70

Closing Ordersupra note 13 para. 1408.

73

Trial Chamber Memorandumsupra note 52. For a criticism of this decision see Silke Studzinsky ‘Comments in Response to the Inclusion of Sexual Crimes in Case 002/2’ Civil Parties Before the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia 9 April 2014 <www.civilparties.org/?p=1686> 17 June 2014.

74

Trial Chamber Memorandumsupra note 52 para. 1414.

79

Closing Ordersupra note 13 paras. 745 1336.

84

Sosupra note 24.

88

Contrast Rome Statutesupra note 6 Art. 7(h).

92

Trial Chamber Memorandumsupra note 52.

94

Closing Ordersupra note 13 para. 1433.

95

Askinsupra note 53 p. 288.

97

Trial Chamber Memorandumsupra note 52.

99

Closing Ordersupra note 13 paras. 217–220 842–867.

103

Oosterveldsupra note 54.

108

Nakagawasupra note 20 p. 21; Studzinsky supra note 1 p. 99.

110

Studzinskysupra note 1 pp. 92–93; Toy-Cronin supra note 105 p. 552.

111

Closing Ordersupra note 13 paras. 1443–1444.

115

Closing Ordersupra note 13 para. 855.

116

Peg LeVinesupra note 104; Toy-Cronin supra note 105 paras. 555–556; Transcultural Psychosocial Organization Cambodia ‘Like Ghost Changes Body: A Study on the Impact of Forced Marriage under the Khmer Rouge Regime’ October 2014 p. 61 tpo_October_2014.pdf> 15 December 2014.

119

Jainibid. pp. 1013–1032; Toy-Cronin supra note 105. Contrast Studzinsky’s approach supra note 1 p. 99; Rachel Slater ‘Gender Violence or Violence Against Women? The Treatment of Forced Marriage in Special Court for Sierra Leone’ 13(2) Melbourne Journal of International Law (2012) 732–773 p. 732; Scharf and Mattler supra note 107.

121

Toy-Croninsupra note 105 p. 544.

122

Fulu et al.supra note 120 Table 4.1 p. 40; 20.4 per cent of Cambodian men reported any rape of a partner or non-partner ever in their lives.

124

Theresa de Langis‘All rapists should be punished’The Phnom Penh Post (Phnom Penh) 27 December 2013<www.phnompenhpost.com/analysis-and-op-ed/all-rapists-should-be-punished> 15 December 2014.

126

Closing Ordersupra note 13 para. 1393.

127

Studzinskysupra note 1 p. 90.

128

Closing Ordersupra note 13 para. 855.

132

Closing Ordersupra note 13 paras. 1307 1318–1319; Case 001supra note 36 paras. 504–513.

137

Case 002/01 Judgmentsupra note 63 para. 696.

141

Closing Ordersupra note 13 para. 156.

149

Oosterveldsupra note 54 p. 70

152

Case 002/01 Judgmentsupra note 63 para. 777.

156

Closing Ordersupra note 13 paras. 191 1428.

157

De Langis and Studzinskysupra note 17 p. 4.

159

De Brouwer et al. (eds.)supra note 5 p. 64; Chile Eboe-Osuji ‘Superior Responsibility for the Rape of Women during Armed Conflict’ in International Law and Sexual Violence in Armed Conflicts (Koninklijke Brill Leiden 2012).

160

Closing Ordersupra note 13 paras. 1065 1181 1428.

161

Closing Ordersupra note 13 paras. 1426–1427.

169

Studzinskysupra note 1 p. 91; on interrogations regarding immorality see Closing Order supra note 13 para. 191.

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