Procedural Justice in International Criminal Courts: Assessing Civil Parties’ Perceptions of Justice at the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia

In: International Criminal Law Review
Author: Rachel Killean1
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  • 1 Queen’s University, UK

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Procedural justice advocates argue that fair procedures in decision making processes can increase participant satisfaction with legal institutions. Little critical work has been done however to explore the power of such claims in the context of mass violence and international criminal justice. This article critically examines some of the key claims of procedural justice by exploring the perceptions of justice held by victims participating as Civil Parties in the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (eccc). The eccc has created one of the most inclusive and extensive victim participation regimes within international criminal law. It therefore provides a unique case study to examine some of claims of ‘victim-centred’ transitional justice through a procedural justice lens. It finds that while procedural justice influenced civil parties’ overall perceptions of the Court, outcomes remained of primary importance. It concludes by analysing the possible reasons for this prioritisation.

  • 8

    Luke Moffett, Justice for Victims before the International Criminal Court (Routledge, Oxon, 2014); Tony Kearon and Barry Godfrey, ‘Setting the Scene: A Question of History’ in Sandra Walklate (ed.), Handbook of Victims and Victimology (Routledge, London, 2011) pp. 17–36.

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  • 16

    Kutnjak Ivković and Hagan, supra note 5.

  • 19

    Tyler, supra note 17; Thibaut and Walker, supra note 15.

  • 32

    Moffett, supra note 8, p. 151.

  • 37

    Danieli, supra note 33.

  • 38

    Moffett, supra note 8.

  • 40

    Wemmers, supra note 14; Wemmers, supra note 33.

  • 42

    Kutnjak Ivković and Hagan, supra note 5, p. 138.

  • 44

    McGonigle Leyh, supra note 14, p. 30.

  • 49

    Mohan, supra note 12, p. 745.

  • 56

    Case 001 Judgement, supra note 51.

  • 63

    Case 001 Judgment, supra note 51, paras. 668–669.

  • 64

    Case 002/01 Judgement, supra note 60, paras. 1126–1140.

  • 67

    Kutnjak Ivković and Hagan, supra note 5; E. Allan Lind and Tom Tyler, The Social Psychology of Procedural Justice (Plenum Press, New York, 1988); Thibaut and Walker, supra note 15; Tom Tyler, Why People Obey the Law: Procedural Justice, Legitimacy, and Compliance (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1990).

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  • 85

    Shapland, supra note 20; Leventhal, supra note 18.

  • 86

    Musante et al., supra note 21; Tyler, supra note 17; Wemmers, supra note 21.

  • 87

    Lind and Tyler, supra note 67, p. 97.

  • 89

    Shapland, supra note 20.

  • 90

    Leventhal, supra note 18; Tom Tyler, ‘What is Procedural Justice?: Criteria Used by Citizens to Assess the Fairness of Legal Procedures’, 22(1) Law and Society Review (1988) 103–136.

  • 91

    Wemmers, supra note 14.

  • 92

    Moffett, supra note 8, p. 31.

  • 96

    Tyler, supra note 67; Lind and Tyler, supra note 67, p. 111; Leventhal, supra note 18; Tyler, supra note 90.

  • 98

    Pham et al., supra note 95; Eric Stover, Mychelle Balthazard and K. Alexa Koenig, ‘Confronting Duch: Civil Party Participation in Case 001 at the eccc’, 93(882) International Review of the Red Cross (2011) 1–44, p. 31; Nadine Kirchenbauer et al., ‘Victims Participation before the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia’, Baseline Study of the Cambodian Human Rights and Development Association’s Civil Party Scheme for Case 002 (2013), p. 32; Johanna Herman, Local Voices in Internationalised Justice: The Experience of Civil Parties at the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (Centre on Human Rights in Conflict, University of East London, May 2014) p. 3.

  • 99

    Tyler, supra note 18, p. 117.

  • 100

    Des Forges and Longman, supra note 5; Hodžić, supra note 5; Stover, supra note 5; Kutnjak Ivković and Hagan, supra note 5; Jean-Marie Kamatali, ‘From the ictr to icc: Learning from the ictr Experience in Bringing Justice to Rwandans’, 12(1) New England Journal of International and Comparative Law (2005) 89–103.

  • 103

    Kutnjak Ivković and Hagan, supra note 5, p. 50.

  • 106

    Pham et al. (2009), supra note 95; Herman, supra note 98.

  • 112

    Tyler, supra note 17, p. 283; Tyler, supra note 67; Lind and Tyler, supra note 67, p. 111.

  • 114

    Hoyle and Ullrich, supra note 10; McGonigle Leyh, supra note 14, pp. 47–38; Wemmers, supra note 14; Danieli, supra note 33; Luke Moffett, ‘Meaningful and Effective? Considering Victims’ Interests through Participation at the International Criminal Court’, 26 Criminal Law Forum (2015) 255–289.

  • 115

    Hoyle and Ullrich, supra note 10, p. 686.

  • 116

    Andrew Ashworth, ‘Victim Impact Statements and Sentencing’, Criminal Law Review (1993) 498–509; Helen Reeves and Peter Dunn, ‘The Status of Crime Victims and Witnesses in the Twenty-First Century,’ in Anthony Bottoms and Julian Roberts (eds.), Hearing the Victim: Adversarial Justice, Crime Victims and the State (Routledge, Cambridge, 2012) 46–71; Peggy Tobolowsky, ‘Victim Participation in the Criminal Justice Process: Fifteen Years after the President’s Task Force on Victims of Crime’, 25(21) New England Journal on Criminal and Civil Confinement (1999) 21–105.

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  • 121

    Tyler, supra note 18, p. 117; Leventhal, supra note 18; Leung and Lind, supra note 18; Leventhal et al., supra note 18; Lind and Tyler, supra note 67.

  • 123

    Stover et al., supra note 98.

  • 125

     See Mohan, supra note 12.

  • 126

    Groenhuijsen and Pemberton, supra note 120.

  • 129

    Hoven et al., supra note 117, p. 72.

  • 130

    Groenhuijsen and Pemberton, supra note 120.

  • 132

    Shapland, supra note 20, pp. 132–135.

  • 133

    Wemmers, supra note 21, p. 126. This finding has been confirmed in subsequent studies, for an overview see Jo-anne Wemmers, ‘Victims’ Rights and the International Criminal Court: Perceptions within the Court Regarding the Victims’ Right to Participate’, 23 Leiden Journal of International Law (2010) 629–643.

  • 135

    McGonigle Leyh, supra note 14, pp. 217–218.

  • 136

    Tyler, supra note 17; Shapland, supra note 20; Musante et al., supra note 21; Wemmers supra note 21.

  • 137

    Thibaut and Walker, supra note 15; Shapland et al., supra note 96.

  • 138

    Tyler, supra note 18, p. 117; Leventhal, supra note 18; Leung and Lind, supra note 18; Leventhal et al. supra note 18; Lind and Tyler, supra note 67.

  • 139

    Wemmers, supra note 33.

  • 142

    Thibaut and Walker, supra note 15; LaTour, supra note 24; Lind and Tyler, supra note 67.

  • 143

    Ciorciari and Heindel, supra note 48.

  • 144

    Hoven et al., supra note 117, p. 26. Pham et al., supra note 95 found a similar focus on the punishment of perpetrators amongst the broader Cambodian society.

  • 147

    Drumbl, supra note 3, p. 157.

  • 148

    McEvoy and Mallinder, supra note 30, p. 421.

  • 149

    Ciorciara and Heindel, supra note 47.

  • 150

    McEvoy and Mallinder, supra note 30, p. 420.

  • 151

    Groenhuijsen and Pemberton, supra note 120; Moffett supra note 8.

  • 152

    Thibaut and Walker, supra note 15; Lind et al., supra note 24; LaTour, supra note 24; Tyler, supra note 65.

  • 155

    Stover et al., supra note 98, pp. 36–37.

  • 157

    Orth, supra note 22.

  • 159

    Stover et al., supra note 98, p. 41, noting the possibility that participation in Case 002 will be more ‘formulaic’.

  • 160

    Moffett, supra note 8 at 179.

  • 173

    Kirchenbauer et al., supra note 98, p. 19.

  • 176

    Herman, supra note 98, p. 3.

  • 178

    Moffett, supra note 8.

  • 179

    Wemmers, supra note 14.

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