Procedural Justice in International Criminal Courts: Assessing Civil Parties’ Perceptions of Justice at the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia

in International Criminal Law Review
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Procedural justice advocates argue that fair procedures in decision making processes can increase participant satisfaction with legal institutions. Little critical work has been done however to explore the power of such claims in the context of mass violence and international criminal justice. This article critically examines some of the key claims of procedural justice by exploring the perceptions of justice held by victims participating as Civil Parties in the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (eccc). The eccc has created one of the most inclusive and extensive victim participation regimes within international criminal law. It therefore provides a unique case study to examine some of claims of ‘victim-centred’ transitional justice through a procedural justice lens. It finds that while procedural justice influenced civil parties’ overall perceptions of the Court, outcomes remained of primary importance. It concludes by analysing the possible reasons for this prioritisation.

Procedural Justice in International Criminal Courts: Assessing Civil Parties’ Perceptions of Justice at the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia

in International Criminal Law Review

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References

  • 8

    Luke MoffettJustice for Victims before the International Criminal Court (Routledge, Oxon, 2014); Tony Kearon and Barry Godfrey, ‘Setting the Scene: A Question of History’ in Sandra Walklate (ed.), Handbook of Victims and Victimology (Routledge, London2011) pp. 17–36.

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  • 16

    Kutnjak Ivković and Hagansupra note 5.

  • 19

    Tylersupra note 17; Thibaut and Walker supra note 15.

  • 32

    Moffettsupra note 8 p. 151.

  • 37

    Danielisupra note 33.

  • 38

    Moffettsupra note 8.

  • 40

    Wemmerssupra note 14; Wemmers supra note 33.

  • 42

    Kutnjak Ivković and Hagansupra note 5 p. 138.

  • 44

    McGonigle Leyhsupra note 14 p. 30.

  • 49

    Mohansupra note 12 p. 745.

  • 56

    Case 001 Judgementsupra note 51.

  • 63

    Case 001 Judgmentsupra note 51 paras. 668–669.

  • 64

    Case 002/01 Judgementsupra note 60 paras. 1126–1140.

  • 67

    Kutnjak Ivković and Hagansupra note 5; E. Allan Lind and Tom Tyler The Social Psychology of Procedural Justice (Plenum Press New York 1988); Thibaut and Walker supra note 15; Tom Tyler Why People Obey the Law: Procedural Justice Legitimacy and Compliance (Yale University Press New Haven 1990).

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  • 85

    Shaplandsupra note 20; Leventhal supra note 18.

  • 86

    Musante et al.supra note 21; Tyler supra note 17; Wemmers supra note 21.

  • 87

    Lind and Tylersupra note 67 p. 97.

  • 89

    Shaplandsupra note 20.

  • 90

    Leventhalsupra note 18; Tom Tyler ‘What is Procedural Justice?: Criteria Used by Citizens to Assess the Fairness of Legal Procedures’ 22(1) Law and Society Review (1988) 103–136.

  • 91

    Wemmerssupra note 14.

  • 92

    Moffettsupra note 8 p. 31.

  • 96

    Tylersupra note 67; Lind and Tyler supra note 67 p. 111; Leventhal supra note 18; Tyler supra note 90.

  • 98

    Pham et al.supra note 95; Eric Stover Mychelle Balthazard and K. Alexa Koenig ‘Confronting Duch: Civil Party Participation in Case 001 at the eccc’ 93(882) International Review of the Red Cross (2011) 1–44 p. 31; Nadine Kirchenbauer et al. ‘Victims Participation before the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia’ Baseline Study of the Cambodian Human Rights and Development Association’s Civil Party Scheme for Case 002 (2013) p. 32; Johanna Herman Local Voices in Internationalised Justice: The Experience of Civil Parties at the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (Centre on Human Rights in Conflict University of East London May 2014) p. 3.

  • 99

    Tylersupra note 18 p. 117.

  • 100

    Des Forges and Longmansupra note 5; Hodžić supra note 5; Stover supra note 5; Kutnjak Ivković and Hagan supra note 5; Jean-Marie Kamatali ‘From the ictr to icc: Learning from the ictr Experience in Bringing Justice to Rwandans’ 12(1) New England Journal of International and Comparative Law (2005) 89–103.

  • 103

    Kutnjak Ivković and Hagansupra note 5 p. 50.

  • 106

    Pham et al. (2009) supra note 95; Herman supra note 98.

  • 112

    Tylersupra note 17 p. 283; Tyler supra note 67; Lind and Tyler supra note 67 p. 111.

  • 114

    Hoyle and Ullrichsupra note 10; McGonigle Leyh supra note 14 pp. 47–38; Wemmers supra note 14; Danieli supra note 33; Luke Moffett ‘Meaningful and Effective? Considering Victims’ Interests through Participation at the International Criminal Court’ 26 Criminal Law Forum (2015) 255–289.

  • 115

    Hoyle and Ullrichsupra note 10 p. 686.

  • 116

    Andrew Ashworth‘Victim Impact Statements and Sentencing’Criminal Law Review (1993) 498–509; Helen Reeves and Peter Dunn ‘The Status of Crime Victims and Witnesses in the Twenty-First Century’ in Anthony Bottoms and Julian Roberts (eds.) Hearing the Victim: Adversarial Justice Crime Victims and the State (Routledge Cambridge 2012) 46–71; Peggy Tobolowsky ‘Victim Participation in the Criminal Justice Process: Fifteen Years after the President’s Task Force on Victims of Crime’ 25(21) New England Journal on Criminal and Civil Confinement (1999) 21–105.

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  • 121

    Tylersupra note 18 p. 117; Leventhal supra note 18; Leung and Lind supra note 18; Leventhal et al. supra note 18; Lind and Tyler supra note 67.

  • 123

    Stover et al.supra note 98.

  • 125

     See Mohansupra note 12.

  • 126

    Groenhuijsen and Pembertonsupra note 120.

  • 129

    Hoven et al.supra note 117 p. 72.

  • 130

    Groenhuijsen and Pembertonsupra note 120.

  • 132

    Shaplandsupra note 20 pp. 132–135.

  • 133

    Wemmerssupra note 21 p. 126. This finding has been confirmed in subsequent studies for an overview see Jo-anne Wemmers ‘Victims’ Rights and the International Criminal Court: Perceptions within the Court Regarding the Victims’ Right to Participate’ 23 Leiden Journal of International Law (2010) 629–643.

  • 135

    McGonigle Leyh supra note 14 pp. 217–218.

  • 136

    Tylersupra note 17; Shapland supra note 20; Musante et al. supra note 21; Wemmers supra note 21.

  • 137

    Thibaut and Walkersupra note 15; Shapland et al. supra note 96.

  • 138

    Tylersupra note 18 p. 117; Leventhal supra note 18; Leung and Lind supra note 18; Leventhal et al. supra note 18; Lind and Tyler supra note 67.

  • 139

    Wemmerssupra note 33.

  • 142

    Thibaut and Walkersupra note 15; LaTour supra note 24; Lind and Tyler supra note 67.

  • 143

    Ciorciari and Heindelsupra note 48.

  • 144

    Hoven et al.supra note 117 p. 26. Pham et al. supra note 95 found a similar focus on the punishment of perpetrators amongst the broader Cambodian society.

  • 147

    Drumblsupra note 3 p. 157.

  • 148

    McEvoy and Mallindersupra note 30 p. 421.

  • 149

    Ciorciara and Heindelsupra note 47.

  • 150

    McEvoy and Mallindersupra note 30 p. 420.

  • 151

    Groenhuijsen and Pembertonsupra note 120; Moffett supra note 8.

  • 152

    Thibaut and Walkersupra note 15; Lind et al. supra note 24; LaTour supra note 24; Tyler supra note 65.

  • 155

    Stover et al.supra note 98 pp. 36–37.

  • 157

    Orthsupra note 22.

  • 159

    Stover et al.supra note 98 p. 41 noting the possibility that participation in Case 002 will be more ‘formulaic’.

  • 160

    Moffettsupra note 8 at 179.

  • 173

    Kirchenbauer et al.supra note 98 p. 19.

  • 176

    Hermansupra note 98 p. 3.

  • 178

    Moffettsupra note 8.

  • 179

    Wemmerssupra note 14.

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