Enemy of Mankind or Just No Powerful Friends Left? Insights from International Relations about the Efficacy of the icc

in International Criminal Law Review
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Applying both constructivism and the English school of international relations, the icc is shown to be founded upon, and simultaneously constitutive of, a vision of universally shared humanity. However, the icc performs this role of norm-entrepreneurship within a structure premised upon Westphalian notions of sovereignty that are not conducive to this vision. This tension is embedded within the Rome Statute due to compromises struck in its drafting between those actors who envisioned a solidarist ‘world community’, and those attached to the status quo of an ‘international society’. These compromises have given rise to power relations that undermine the vision of ending impunity for international crimes. Consequently, it is not simply by one’s conduct that they come before the Court as a hostis humani generis, but rather because they have no powerful friends left. The efficacy of the icc is contingent on this transition between two competing conceptions of international society.

Enemy of Mankind or Just No Powerful Friends Left? Insights from International Relations about the Efficacy of the icc

in International Criminal Law Review

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References

  • 16

    Ralphsupra note 13 pp. 88–89.

  • 18

    Sadatsupra note 1 p. 109; Mégret supra note 2 p. 258.

  • 20

    Bullsupra note 11 p. 65.

  • 25

    Onufsupra note 23 pp. 13–14.

  • 26

    Bullsupra note 11 p. 65.

  • 28

    Ralphsupra note 13 pp. 8–9.

  • 29

    Vattelsupra note 7 p. 6.

  • 31

    Ralphsupra note 13 p. 23.

  • 36

    Ralphsupra note 13 p. 8; B. Fassbender ‘The United Nations Charter as Constitution of the International Community’ 36 Columbia Journal of Transnational Law (1998) 564–565.

  • 37

    Ralphsupra note 13 p. 16.

  • 40

    Mégretsupra note 2 p. 267.

  • 42

    Bullsupra note 11 p. 181.

  • 44

    Mégretsupra note 2 p. 258; Sadat supra note 1 p. 8.

  • 45

    Sadatsupra note 1 p. 8.

  • 47

    Keenesupra note 11 p. 178.

  • 49

    Onufsupra note 23 p. 65.

  • 50

    Ralphsupra note 13 p. 22.

  • 53

    Ralphsupra note 13 p. 21.

  • 57

    Ralphsupra note 13 pp. 109–116.

  • 58

    Mégretsupra note 2 p. 268; for an overview of some sources of opposition see Part 4.1 below; see e.g. S. Manisuli ‘The Rise of the African Union Opposition to the International Criminal Court’s Investigation and Prosecutions of African Leaders’ 13(2) International Criminal Law Review (2013) 385; for a succinct summary of us Opposition see N. Green ‘Stonewalling Justice us Opposition to the icc’ 26(2) Harvard International Review (Summer 2004) 34–37.

  • 61

    Nouwen and Wernersupra note 60 p. 963.

  • 64

    Addissupra note 62 p. 159.

  • 67

    Bullsupra note 11 p. 80.

  • 73

    Greenesupra note 71 p. 688.

  • 77

    Greenesupra note 71 p. 702 cites a 1718 Case of piracy in South Carolina: The Trials of Major Stede Bonnet and Thirty-three Others at the Court of Vice-Admiralty at Charles-Town in South-Carolina for Piracy in A Complete Collection of State Trials and Proceedings for High Treason and Other Crimes and Misdemeanors from the Earliest Period to the Present Time vol. 15 col. 1235.

  • 78

    Greenesupra note 71 p. 702; nb. for Schmitt this aporia allows us to treat an ‘enemy’ with the utmost depravity see Schmitt supra note 65 p. 54 although Rome Statute Arts. 66 67 expressly provide for rights of the accused.

  • 82

    Greenesupra note 71 p. 690.

  • 84

    Greenesupra note 71 p. 688; see also Gould supra note 80 p. 34.

  • 86

    Greenesupra note 71 p. 689 cites Augustine The City of God Henry Bettenson (trans.) (Harmondsworth uk 1972) p. 139.

  • 88

    Addissupra note 62 p. 130.

  • 95

    Addissupra note 62 p. 161 cites K. Ambos ‘Prosecuting International Crimes at the National and International Level: Between Justice and Realpolitik’ in W. Kaleck M. Ratner T. Singelnstein and P. Weiss (eds.) International Prosecution of Human Rights Crimes (Springer Berlin 2007) pp. 55–68.

  • 96

    Ralphsupra note 13 p. 212.

  • 98

    Gegoutsupra note 76 p. 807; Nouwen and Werner supra note 60 p. 946; R. Cole ‘Africa’s Relationship with the icc: More Political than Legal’ 14(2) Melbourne Journal of International Law (2013) 690–691.

  • 99

    Gouldsupra note 80 p. 38.

  • 102

    Sadatsupra note 2 pp. 5 8.

  • 108

    Ralphsupra note 13 p. 216.

  • 112

    Ralphsupra note 13 p. 214.

  • 113

    Colesupra note 98 p. 698.

  • 114

    Gegoutsupra note 76 p. 808.

  • 117

    Quoted by Mégretsupra note 69 p. 47.

  • 118

    Bullsupra note 11 p. 47.

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