The Impact of African Philosophy on the Realisation of International Community and the Observance of International Law

in International Community Law Review
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The legal nature of international law is uncertain, despite being the foundation of the international community. Its non-universality questions the cohesion and efficacy of the international community. The international community operates as an exclusive club, coalescing around certain shared values, like liberal democracy and free market economy. Sub-Saharan Africa is usually excluded from being an active part of the international community due to differing values; a shared understanding of community which conflicts with the shared values of the core of the international community. Furthermore, their post-colonial nature deters African states from choosing their own path or adopting the norms of the ‘international community.’ A paradigmatic shift in research into sub-Saharan Africa and the international community is necessary to ensure a truly effective international community and wider observance of international law.

The Impact of African Philosophy on the Realisation of International Community and the Observance of International Law

in International Community Law Review

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References

4

Ellissupra note 2 p. 23.

5

William W. Burke-White“Power Shifts in International Law: Structural Realignment and Substantive Pluralism”University of Penn Law School Public Law Research Paper No. 14-2 (2014) p. 7; Paulus supra note 2 p. 59.

6

Burke-Whitesupra note 5 p. 7.

7

Menonsupra note 2 pp. 235–246; Samantha Besson “Ubi Ius Ibi Civitas: A Republican Account of the International Community.” in S. Besson and Marti (eds.) Legal Republicanism: National and International Perspectives. (2009) pp. 205–238; Adeno Addis “Imagining the International Community: The Constitutive Dimension of Universal Jurisdiction” 31 Human Rights Quarterly (2009) pp. 129–162; Philip Allott “The Emerging Universal Legal System” in J. Nijman and A. Nollkaemper (eds.) New Perspectives on the Divide Between National and International Law (2007) pp. 81–83.

8

Menonsupra note 2 p. 237.

10

Ibid. p. 33; Dino Kritsiotis “Imagining the International Community” 13 European Journal of International Law (2002) p. 991.

11

People’s Daily Onlinesupra note 2.

12

Peltonensupra note 3 p. 475.

15

Simma and Paulussupra note 3 p. 268; Edward Kwakwa “The International Community International Law and the United States: Three In One Two against One or One and the Same?” in M. Byers and G. Nolte (eds.) United States Hegemony and the Foundations of International Law (2003) pp. 33–34.

16

Menonsupra note 2 p. 235.

18

Gowerssupra note 2 pp. 32–33.

20

Paulussupra note 2 p. 62; Georges Abi-Saab “Whither the International Community?” 9 European Journal of International Law (1998) p. 249.

21

Abi-Saabsupra note 20 p. 261.

25

Ellissupra note 2 p. 14.

28

Hehirsupra note 2 p. 38.

29

Annansupra note 2 p. 31.

30

Simma and Paulussupra note 3 p. 275.

33

Owensupra note 31 p. 118.

34

Gowerssupra note 2 pp. 32–33.

35

Ibid.33.

36

Chomskysupra note 24 p. 34; Kwakwa supra note 15 p. 56.

37

Chomskysupra note 24 p. 34.

38

Hehirsupra note 2 p. 38.

42

Paulussupra note 2 p. 87; Kwakwa supra note 15 p. 39.

43

Kirkpatricksupra note 40 p. 36.

45

Ibid. p. 411.

46

Simma and Paulussupra note 3 p. 272; Kwakwa supra note 15 p. 44.

48

Simma and Paulussupra note 3 p. 267.

49

Hehirsupra note 2 p. 38.

51

Lucas Jrsupra note 26 pp. 128 129 142–143.

53

Allottsupra note 44 p. 412.

55

Buzan and Gonzalez‐Pelaezsupra note 2 p. 35.

56

Ellissupra note 2 p. 8.

57

Schimmelfennigsupra note 2 p. 427.

59

Schimmelfennigsupra note 2 p. 427.

61

Peltonensupra note 3 p. 487.

62

Schimmelfennigsupra note 2 p. 426; Ellis supra note 2 p. 7; Kritsiotis supra note 10 p. 967.

63

Simma and Paulussupra note 3 p. 268.

64

Ibid. p. 271; Addissupra note 7 p. 144.

65

Addissupra note 7 p. 144.

67

Addissupra note 7 pp. 150 151; Annan supra note 2 p. 31.

68

Addissupra note 7 p. 151.

69

Simma and Paulussupra note 3 p. 223.

70

Addissupra note 7 p. 144; Annan supra note 2 p. 30; Simma and Paulus supra note 3 p. 268.

71

Allottsupra note 44 p. 395.

72

Ibid. p. 398.

73

Simma and Paulussupra note 3 p. 267.

75

Ellissupra note 2 p. 8.

76

Simma and Paulussupra note 3 pp. 267–268.

77

Lucas Jrsupra note 26 p. 129.

78

Buchansupra note 41 p. 4.

79

Lucas Jrsupra note 26 p. 124.

80

Herbstsupra note 22 p. 142.

82

de Guevara and Kühnsupra note 54 pp. 145–147.

85

Paulussupra note 2 p. 72.

86

Akesupra note 83 pp. 240 241.

87

Ibid. pp. 242–243.

92

Menkitisupra note 91 p. 173; Kwame Gyekye “The Akan Concept of a Person” 18 International Philosophical Quarterly (1978) pp. 277–287; Kwame Gyekye “African Ethics” Spring Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2011) no pagination; John L. Comaroff and Jean Comaroff “On Personhood: An Anthropological Perspective from Africa Social Identities” 7 Journal for the Study of Race Nation and Culture (2001) p. 271; Thaddeus Metz “Toward an African Moral Theory” 15 Journal of Political Philosophy (2007) p. 323.

93

Gyekye African Ethicssupra note 92.

96

Bellsupra note 89 p. 36.

105

Fattonsupra note 102 p. 458.

107

Fattonsupra note 102 p. 458.

109

Ibid.22; E. O. Isichei History of West Africa Since 1800 (Africana Publishing Company; 1977) 303 309; Mgbeoji supra note 52 p. 858.

110

Mgbeojisupra note 52 p. 858.

112

Lockesupra note 101 p. 323.

118

Ibid. p. 148.

119

Ibid. p. 162.

120

Jacksonsupra note 100 pp. 526–527.

121

Herbstsupra note 22 p. 131.

123

Fattonsupra note 102.

124

Herbstsupra note 22 p. 125.

125

Simma and Paulussupra note 3 p. 276.

128

Parissupra note 126 p. 651; Mgbeoji supra note 52 pp. 856 858.

129

Mgbeojisupra note 52 p. 856.

130

Parissupra note 126 p. 652.

131

Mgbeojisupra note 52 p. 857; Alice Lee and Karl Pearson “Mathematical Contributions to the Theory of Evolution. On the Relative Variation and Correlation in Civilised and Uncivilised Races” 61 Proceedings of the Royal Society of London (1897) p. 354; Martens supra note 127 pp. 344–345.

132

Lucas Jrsupra note 26 p. 129.

133

Addissupra note 7 p. 145.

134

Ibid. p. 156.

137

Herbstsupra note 22 pp. 136–137.

138

Ibid. pp. 139 140.

139

Ibid. p. 140.

140

Akesupra note 83 p. 242.

141

Ibid. pp. 243 244.

142

Fassbendersupra note 74 p. 56.

143

Buchansupra note 41 p. 14.

144

Menkitisupra note 91 pp. 171–180.

145

Akesupra note 83 p. 241.

146

Buzan and Gonzalez‐Pelaezsupra note 2 p. 33.

147

Menonsupra note 2 pp. 236–237.

148

Burke-Whitesupra note 5 p. 38.

149

Lindbergsupra note 104 pp. 123 124.

151

Herbstsupra note 22 p. 139.

152

Ibid. p. 126.

153

Ibid. p. 131.

158

Lucas Jrsupra note 26 p. 139.

159

Ibid. p. 130.

163

Herbstsupra note 22 p. 144.

164

Fassbendersupra note 74 p. 177.

165

de Guevara and Kühnsupra note 54 pp. 142–143.

166

Ibid. p. 144.

167

Peltonensupra note 3 pp. 16–17.

168

Ellissupra note 2 p. 24.

169

Mgbeojisupra note 52 p. 864.

170

de Guevara and Kühnsupra note 54 p. 148.

171

Herbstsupra note 22 p. 140.

172

Ibid. p. 133.

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