A Temporary Protection Regime in Line with International Law: Utopia or Real Possibility?

in International Community Law Review
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Temporary protection has long been a state response to mass influx situations offering persons seeking refuge immediate protection from refoulement and basic minimum treatment. Today, temporary protection is still relevant: Since 2011, Syrians in Turkey have been protected under a temporary protection regime. Despite this relevance, there is no structured legal framework regulating temporary protection at an international level. Furthermore, conformity of temporary protection regimes with the Refugee Convention, international law and human rights is largely undefined and unsettled. This article takes a step towards clarifying the relationship between temporary protection and international law by discussing whether states can implement a temporary protection regime which does not undermine the Refugee Convention, deprive temporarily protected persons of their basic human rights and lead to premature forced return of the protected persons. Building on the premise that such a temporary protection regime would be in line with international law, this article provides guidance to states on how they should regulate rights and entitlements of the temporarily protected persons, maximum time limit of protection and withdrawal of temporary protection.

A Temporary Protection Regime in Line with International Law: Utopia or Real Possibility?

in International Community Law Review

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References

  • 2

    Fitzpatricksupra note 1 p. 282; Guy S. Goodwin-Gill Jane McAdam The Refugee in International Law (3rd ed. 2007) p. 340; Alice Edwards “Temporary Protection Derogation and the 1951 Refugee Convention” 13 Melbourne Journal of International Law (2012) p. 600.

  • 5

    Fitzpatricksupra note 1 p. 292; ila ‘Report of the Committee on Refugee Procedures of the ila (Delhi Conference 2002). Final Report and Draft Guidelines on Temporary Protection’ (2002) p. 2; James C. Hathaway “Leveraging Asylum” 45 Texas International Law Journal (2009) pp. 504 505.

  • 7

    Fitzpatricksupra note 1 p. 280; Valeska Onken “The Social Implications of Temporary Protection in Light of the Imperative of Return: A Study of European Policies” in A. Botesta (ed.) Refugee Crises and International Response: Towards Permanent Solutions? (2005) p. 183.

  • 12

    For a similar argument see ibid. pp. 203–207.

  • 19

    Ibid. p. 3; Thorburnsupra note 1 p. 461.

  • 21

    Thorburnsupra note 1 p. 465; unhcr Roundtable on Temporary Protection supra note 10 pp. 1–3.

  • 22

    Fitzpatricksupra note 1 pp. 282 286; Thorburn supra note 1 p. 467; unhcr ‘A Comprehensive Response to the Humanitarian Crisis in the Former Yugoslavia’ 24 July 1992 hcr/imfy/1992/2.

  • 24

    Thorburnsupra note 1 p. 461; Nadia Yakoob “Report on the Workshop on Temporary Protection: Comparative Policies and Practices” 13 Georgetown Immigration Law Journal (1998–1999) pp. 620 621.

  • 29

    Fitzpatricksupra note 1 p. 291.

  • 30

    Ibid. p. 291; ExCoM Conclusion No 22; unhcr Guidelines on Temporary Protection supra note 13 para 16; Article 13 of the Temporary protection directive.

  • 32

    See Fitzpatricksupra note 1 p. 287; Onken supra note 7 p. 185.

  • 34

    Akram and Rempelsupra note 33 pp. 12 13; Onken supra note 7 p. 185.

  • 35

    Akram and Rempelsupra note 33 p. 12; Onken supra note 7 p. 185.

  • 37

    Yakoobsupra note 24 p. 623.

  • 38

    Yakoobsupra note 24 p. 623.

  • 39

    Akram and Rempelsupra note 33 p. 12; Fitzpatrick supra note 1 p. 299; Khalid Koser Martha Walsh Richard Black “Temporary Protection and Assisted Return of Refugees from the European Union” 10(3) International Journal of Refugee Law (1998) pp. 445 455; Onken supra note 7 p. 182.

  • 40

    Fitzpatricksupra note 1 p. 299.

  • 41

    Akram and Rempelsupra note 33 p. 12; Fitzpatrick supra note 1 p. 287.

  • 52

    European Commission (2015) Fact Sheet – EU-Turkey Joint Action Plan Brussels 15 October 2015 available at <http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-15-5860_en.htm>.

  • 53

    European Commission (2016) ‘Managing The Refugee Crisis EU-Turkey Joint Action Plan: Implementation Report available at <http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/home-affairs/what-we-do/policies/european-agenda-migration/background-information/docs/managing_the_refugee_crisis_-_eu-turkey_join_action_plan_implementation_report_20160210_en.pdf>.

  • 55

    See Ineli Cigersupra note 42.

  • 59

    Ineli-Cigersupra note 42 pp. 32 33.

  • 66

    Fitzpatricksupra note 1 p. 289; Onken supra note 7 p. 185; Akram and Rempel supra note 33 p. 14; Katy Long The Point of No Return: Refugees Rights and Repatriation (2013) 116 117; Commission of the European Communities ‘Proposal for a Council Directive on minimum standards for giving temporary protection in the event of a mass influx of displaced persons and on measures promoting a balance of efforts between Member States in receiving such persons and bearing the consequences thereof’ Brussels 24 May 2000 com(2000) 303 final 2000/0127 (cns) para 2.3.

  • 70

    Ibid. p. 783; Edwardssupra note 2 p. 622.

  • 74

    Goodwin-Gill and McAdamsupra note 2 pp. 448–450; Weiss supra note 2 p. 75; Davy supra note 69 p. 792; Jean-François Durieux “Temporary Protection: Hovering at the Edges of Refugee Law” 45 Netherlands Yearbook of International Law (2014) pp. 247 248.

  • 76

    Durieuxsupra note 74 p. 248.

  • 77

    Durieux and McAdamsupra note 31 pp. 4–14.

  • 79

    Ibid. p. 800.

  • 80

    Edwardssupra note 2 pp. 620–622.

  • 81

    Ibid. p. 622.

  • 82

    Ibid. pp. 623–624.

  • 83

    Ibid. pp. 623–624.

  • 84

    Hathawaysupra note 71 p. 267.

  • 85

    Ibid. p. 270.

  • 87

    Durieux and McAdamsupra note 31 p. 18.

  • 88

    Ibid. pp. 13–15.

  • 91

    Hathawaysupra note 64 p. 278.

  • 93

    Fitzpatricksupra note 1 p. 299; Hathaway and Neve supra note 89 p. 172.

  • 94

    Hathaway and Nevesupra note 89 p. 182.

  • 96

    Thorburnsupra note 1 p. 464; Hathaway and Neve supra note 89 p. 172; unhcr “Ensuring International Protection and Enhancing International Cooperation in Mass Influx Situations: Advance Summary Findings of the Study Commissioned by UNHCR” 24(1) Rhetoric Society Quarterly (2005) p. 120.

  • 97

    Akram and Rempelsupra note 33 p. 12; Koser et al. supra note 39 p. 455; Onken supra note 7 p. 182; Durieux supra note 74 p. 232.

  • 98

    Fitzpatricksupra note 1 p. 291; Long supra note 66 pp. 116 117; Joan Fitzpatrick and Rafael Bonoan “Cessation of Refugee Protection” in E. Feller V. Türk F. Nicholson (eds.) Refugee Protection in International Law UNHCR’s Global Consultations on International Protection (2003) p. 522; Akram and Rempel supra note 33 p. 14.

  • 99

    Akram and Rempelsupra note 33 p. 14.

  • 100

    Fitzpatrick and Bonoansupra note 98 p. 522.

  • 106

    Fitzpatrick and Bonoansupra note 98 p. 514.

  • 107

    Ibid. pp. 522 523; Yakoobsupra note 24 p. 624.

  • 109

    Longsupra note 66 pp. 8 9.

  • 110

    Ibid. p. 12.

  • 111

    Thorburnsupra note 1 p. 455.

  • 112

    Fitzpatricksupra note 1 pp. 280 281; Koser et al. supra note 39 p. 445; Long supra note 6639 pp. 115 116.

  • 113

    Akram and Rempelsupra note 33 p. 14.

  • 114

    Ibid. pp. 10–13; Thorburnsupra note 1 pp. 462 464.

  • 115

    Yakoobsupra note 24 p. 620.

  • 116

    Ineli-Cigersupra note 11 pp. 205–207.

  • 117

    Fitzpatricksupra note 102 pp. 346–347 363; Yakoob supra note 24 p. 624.

  • 119

    Sopfsupra note 17 pp. 132 133; unhcr Roundtable on Temporary Protection supra note 10; Hathaway ‘Leveraging Asylum’ supra note 5 pp. 504 505.

  • 122

    Ibid. p. 5.

  • 123

    Ibid. pp. 1–27.

  • 124

    Ibid. p. 4.

  • 126

    Fitzpatricksupra note 1 pp. 280 295.

  • 128

    Hathaway and Nevesupra note 89 pp. 158 159; ila Final Report and Draft Guidelines on Temporary Protection supra note 5 p. 11.

  • 132

    Hathaway and Nevesupra note 89 p. 279.

  • 136

    Ibid. 5; Hathaway and Nevesupra note 89 pp. 163–165; unhcr Guidelines on Temporary Protection supra note 13 p. 4.

  • 145

    Vedtsen-Hansensupra note 143 p. 1172.

  • 146

    Ibid. p. 1176.

  • 147

    Ibid. p. 1171.

  • 149

    Hathaway and Nevesupra note 89 p. 161.

  • 154

    Hathawaysupra note 71 p. 466.

  • 155

    Ibid. p. 951.

  • 164

    Smithsupra note 138 pp. 333–345.

  • 167

    Hathaway and Nevesupra note 89 p. 166; ila Final Report and Draft Guidelines on Temporary Protection supra note 5 p. 10; unhcr Guidelines on Temporary Protection supra note 13 p. 4.

  • 168

    Fitzpatricksupra note 95 p. 304; Walter Kalin ‘Towards a Concept of Temporary Protection Annex’ (unpublished study for unhcr 1996) pp. 19–21 34–43 cited in Fitzpatrick supra note 1 p. 299; Onken supra note 7 p. 206.

  • 171

    Hathaway and Nevesupra note 89 pp. 158 159.

  • 173

    Fitzpatricksupra note 1 p. 299; Hathaway and Neve supra note 89 p. 172.

  • 174

    Hathaway and Nevesupra note 89 p. 182.

  • 175

    Ibid. pp. 181 182.

  • 176

    Ibid. p. 181.

  • 177

    Ibid. pp. 181 182.

  • 179

    Thorburnsupra note 1 p. 464; Hathaway and Neve supra note 89 p. 172; unhcr ‘Ensuring International’ supra note 96 p. 120.

  • 183

    Kneebone and O’Sullivansupra note 101 pp. 486 501.

  • 184

    Ibid. pp. 486 487 501.

  • 186

    Fitzpatrick and Bonoansupra note 98 pp. 497–499; Kneebone and O’Sullivan supra note 94 pp. 524 525; Hathaway supra note 71 pp. 200 203 922; Article 11(2) of the Council Directive 2011/95/eu of 13 December 2911 on standards for the qualification of third-country nationals or stateless persons as beneficiaries of international protection for a uniform status for refugees or for persons eligible for subsidiary protection and for the content of the protection granted (recast) oj L 337/9 20 December 2011 (Recast Qualification directive).

  • 193

    Hathawaysupra note 71 p. 926.

  • 195

    Ibid. paras 10–13; Cwiksupra note 187 p. 724; Hathaway supra note 71 p. 924.

  • 202

    Ibid. p. 57.

  • 204

    Hathawaysupra note 71 p. 946.

  • 207

    Kälinsupra note 92 p. 231.

  • 208

    Hathawaysupra note 71 p. 948.

  • 209

    Bradleysupra note 201 p. 61.

  • 211

    Ibid. p. 11; ila Final Report and Draft Guidelines on Temporary Protection supra note 5 p. 12.

  • 212

    Yakoobsupra note 24 p. 624.

  • 213

    Fitzpatricksupra note 1 p. 305.

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