Christians and the Arabic Qurʾān: Prooftexting, Polemics, and Intertwined Scriptures

in Intellectual History of the Islamicate World
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‭Christians living in the World of Islam have had a lively interaction with the Qurʾān ever since it became widely available in the Arabic-speaking milieu of Umayyad and Abbasid times. This article discusses the multifaceted aspects of this interaction as they are disclosed in texts written by Christians in Greek, Syriac, and Arabic from the eighth through the thirteenth centuries. Christian writers quoted from the Islamic scripture, imitated its diction and style, wrote polemics against it, used its words and phrases as proof texts in their own apologetic texts, and appealed to the religious authority of the Qurʾān for its probative value. In many ways the Qurʾān effectively structured Christian religious discourse in Arabic and this article explores some of the ways this was the case.‬

Christians and the Arabic Qurʾān: Prooftexting, Polemics, and Intertwined Scriptures

in Intellectual History of the Islamicate World

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References

3

‭See TrittonThe Caliphs p. 8; Fattal Le statut legal p. 61; Levy-Rubin Non-Muslims pp. 78 83 126.‬

6

‭HoylandSeeing Islam as Others Saw It p. 471.

7

‭SahasJohn of Damascus p. 133. See Le Coz (ed.) Jean Damascène. See also Griffith “John of Damascus”; Hoyland Seeing Islam as Others Saw It pp. 480–489.‬

8

‭KotterSchriften pp. 60–61.

9

‭SahasJohn of Damascus p. 137.

10

‭HoylandSeeing Islam as Others Saw It p. 488.

19

‭See GibsonAn Arabic Version pp. 74–107 (Arabic); 2–36 (English); Gallo (trans.) Palestinese anonimo. See also Samir “The Earliest Arab Apology for Christianity (c. 750)”; Swanson “Beyond Prooftexting (2)”.‬

20

‭See Samir“The Earliest Arab Apology” pp. 69–70; Swanson “Beyond Prooftexting” pp. 305–308.

21

‭Swanson“Beyond Prooftexting” p. 308.

23

‭GibsonAn Arabic Version pp. 3 (English) 75 (Arabic). Here the English translation has been adapted from Gibson’s version.‬

24

‭See e.g. GibsonAn Arabic Version pp. 5–6 (English) 77–78 (Arabic). See the passage quoted and discussed in Griffith Church p. 55.‬

25

‭Adapted translation from GibsonAn Arabic Version pp. 5–6 (English) 77–78 (Arabic).‬

27

‭See GibsonAn Arabic Version pp. 11 (English) 83 (Arabic).‬

28

‭GibsonAn Arabic Version pp. 13 (English) 85 (Arabic).‬

30

‭See GibsonAn Arabic Version pp. 5 12 33 (English) 77 84 104 (Arabic).‬

31

‭See the remarks in GalloPalestinese anonimo omelia p. 61 esp. n. 50.‬

41

‭KhouryPaul d’Antioche pp. 83 (Arabic) 187 (French).‬

51

‭See RoggemaThe Legend pp. 61–93.

53

‭See RoggemaThe Legend pp. 95–128.

54

‭RoggemaThe Legend pp. 129–149. Cf. also eadem “A Christian Reading of the Qurʾān”.‬

55

‭RoggemaThe Legend pp. 151–208.

56

‭RoggemaThe Legend p. 148.

57

‭RoggemaThe Legend p. 459.

58

‭RoggemaThe Legend p. 463.

59

‭RoggemaThe Legend p. 469 slightly altered.‬

60

‭RoggemaThe Legend pp. 487–489.

61

‭RoggemaThe Legend p. 471.

62

‭RoggemaThe Legend p. 489.

64

‭RoggemaThe Legend p. 511.

65

‭See GriffithThe Bible in Arabic pp. 136–137.

66

‭Frank“Jeremias” pp. 139–140.

67

‭See GriffithChurch pp. 75–105.

73

‭See the discussion in Swanson“Beyond Prooftexting” pp. 312–318.

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