The Paradigmatic Translator and His Method: Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq’s Translation of the Hippocratic Aphorisms from Greek via Syriac into Arabic

in Intellectual History of the Islamicate World
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The present article deals with the role of the Syriac intermediary within Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq’s working process. In its first part I aim to show that the Syriac translation of the Hippocratic Aphorisms (ed. Pognon) was produced by Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq. Since this is the first Syriac translation of an ancient medical text which can be definitely ascribed to Ḥunayn, we are now in a better position to understand his working method. In its second part I compare therefore samples of his Syriac translaton with the Greek Vorlage on the one hand and his Arabic version of this Hippocratic text on the other.

The Paradigmatic Translator and His Method: Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq’s Translation of the Hippocratic Aphorisms from Greek via Syriac into Arabic

in Intellectual History of the Islamicate World

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References

2

See Degen“Galen” pp. 162–163 and Overwien “Syriac and Arabic Translators”.

3

See e.g. Bachmann (ed.)Galens Abhandlung pp. 9–13; Biesterfeldt (ed.) Galens Traktat pp. 16–22; Strohmaier (ed.) Galen. Über die Verschiedenheit pp. 26–32; Overwien “Die orientalische Überlieferung” pp. 131–139; Gutas (ed.) Theophrastus on First Principles pp. 168–223 (in the footnotes); Cooper (ed.) Galen. De diebus decretoriis pp. 82–86; Vagelpohl “Galen”; Ullmann Die Nikomachische Ethik pp. 20–51; 275–373.

4

See Aly“A Few Notes” pp. 139–147; Strohmaier “Galen” passim; Overwien “The Art” pp. 157–166 and Overwien (ed.) Hippocratis De humoribus pp. 57–59.

6

See e.g. Strohmaier“Der syrische” p. 2006 and Gutas Greek Thought p. 139.

7

See Brock“Syriac Background” p. 155.

11

See on this Syriac tradition Rosenthal“Life” p. 228 n. 13 Degen “Zur syrischen Übersetzung” pp. 45–46 and Strohmaier “Der syrische” p. 2001.

13

Cf. GutasGreek Thought p. 139.

16

Cf. also Ullmann“Die Taḏkira” pp. 44–46.

21

See Brock“Syriac Background” pp. 155–156; 159–162.

22

See Degen“Zur syrischen Übersetzung” p. 50. In his article he only mentions the rare expression ‮ܐܚܪܝܬ‬‎ that is used in both Syriac translations to render the Greek superlative.

23

See Magdelaine (ed.)Histoire du texte pp. 238–239; 243–247.

25

See Klamroth“Ueber die Auszüge” pp. 203–233.

28

See Magdelaine (ed.)Histoire du texte pp. 239; 242 n. 3.

29

For the Greek text see Magdelaine (ed.)Histoire du texte p. 453.4–5 (cf. vol. 4 p. 568.14–15 Littré). The English translation is taken from Hippocrates p. 185. The Syriac text is taken from Pognon (ed.) Une version vol. 1 p. 26.15 the Arabic text from Tytler (ed.) Fuṣūl pp. 55.14–56.1.

31

For the Greek text see Magdelaine (ed.)Histoire du texte p. 453.8–9 (cf. vol. 4 p. 570.3–4 Littré). The English translation is taken from Hippocrates p. 185. The Syriac text is taken from Pognon (ed.) Une version vol. 1 p. 26.17 the Arabic text from Tytler (ed.) Fuṣūl p. 56.4.

33

For the Greek text see Magdelaine (ed.)Histoire du texte p. 459.3 (cf. vol. 4 p. 576.17–18 Littré). The English translation is taken from Hippocrates p. 193. The Syriac text is taken from Pognon (ed.) Une version p. 27.29 the Arabic text from Tytler (ed.) Fuṣūl p. 59.3–4; according to the Greek and Syriac we read ‮علل‬‎ of cod. B instead of ‮علامة‬‎ of cod. A; cf. crit. app.

35

For the Greek text see Magdelaine (ed.)Histoire du texte p. 462.1 (cf. vol. IV p. 580.5–6 Littré). The English translation is taken from Hippocrates p. 195. The Syriac text is taken from Pognon (ed.) Une version vol. 1 p. 29.10 (cf. p. XXXVIII n. 181) the Arabic text from Tytler (ed.) Fuṣūl p. 60.13.

36

See Magdelaine (ed.)Histoire du texte p. 462 ad l. 1; cf. Galen In Hipp. Aphor. comm. VII.10: XVIIIA p. 110.5 Kühn.

39

For the Greek text see Magdelaine (ed.)Histoire du texte p. 407.10 (cf. vol. 4 p. 498.7 Littré). The Syriac text is taken from Pognon (ed.) Une version vol. 1 p. 12.22 the Arabic text from Tytler (ed.) Fuṣūl p. 26.10–11.

41

For the Greek text see Magdelaine (ed.)Histoire du texte p. 433.1–2 (cf. vol. 4 p. 536.11–12 Littré). The English translation is taken from Hippocrates p. 161. The Syriac text is taken from Pognon (ed.) Une version vol. 1 p. 20.25–26 the Arabic text from Tytler (ed.) Fuṣūl p. 42.6–8.

43

For the Greek text see Magdelaine (ed.)Histoire du texte p. 455.4–5 (cf. vol. 4 p. 572.3–4 Littré). The English translation is taken from Hippocrates p. 187. The Syriac text is taken from Pognon (ed.) Une version vol. 1 p. 26.30–31 the Arabic text from Tytler (ed.) Fuṣūl p. 57.3–4.

47

For the Greek text see Magdelaine (ed.)Histoire du texte p. 379.7–8 (cf. vol. 4 p. 464.3–4 Littré). The English translation is taken from Hippocrates p. 103. The Syriac text is taken from Pognon (ed.) Une version vol. 1 p. 4.12–13 the Arabic text from Tytler (ed.) Fuṣūl p. 4.7–8.

49

For the Greek text see Magdelaine (ed.)Histoire du texte pp. 450.10–451.2 (cf. vol. 4 p. 566.5–6 Littré). The English translation is taken from Hippocrates p. 183 (slightly modified). The Syriac text is taken from Pognon (ed.) Une version vol. 1 p. 25.18–19 the Arabic text from Tytler (ed.) Fuṣūl p. 54.4–5.

51

See e.g. Vagelpohl“Galen” pp. 143–145 and Cooper (ed.) Galen. De diebus decretoriis p. 83.

52

For the Greek text see Magdelaine (ed.)Histoire du texte pp. 431.2 / 457.5 (cf. vol. 4 pp. 534.6 / 574.10 Littré). The English translation is taken from Hippocrates p. 159. The Syriac text is taken from Pognon (ed.) Une version vol. 1 pp. 20.10 / 27.13–14 the Arabic text from Tytler (ed.) Fuṣūl pp. 41.5–6 / 58.4–5.

53

For the Greek text see Magdelaine (ed.)Histoire du texte p. 434.8 (cf. vol. 4 p. 538.11 Littré). The English translation is taken from Hippocrates p. 163. The Syriac text is taken from Pognon (ed.) Une version vol. 1 p. 21.12 the Arabic text from Tytler (ed.) Fuṣūl p. 43.6–7.

54

For the Greek text see Magdelaine (ed.)Histoire du texte p. 435.8 (cf. vol. 4 p. 540.6 Littré). The Syriac text is taken from Pognon (ed.) Une version vol. 1 p. 21.21–22 the Arabic text from Tytler (ed.) Fuṣūl p. 44.3.

55

For the Greek text see Magdelaine (ed.)Histoire du texte p. 436.5 (cf. vol. 4 p. 540.16 Littré). The English translation is taken from Hippocrates pp. 165. The Syriac text is taken from Pognon (ed.) Une version vol. 1 p. 21.30 the Arabic text from Tytler (ed.) Fuṣūl p. 45.2–3.

57

For the Greek text see Magdelaine (ed.)Histoire du texte p. 452.3–4 (cf. vol. 4 p. 568.3–4 Littré). The English translation is taken from Hippocrates pp. 183–185. The Syriac text is taken from Pognon (ed.) Une version vol. 1 p. 26.7–8 the Arabic text from Tytler (ed.) Fuṣūl p. 55.5–6 (cod. A Tytler: ‮لحم اللحى‬‎; cod. B nos: ‮اللحى‬‎).

58

For the Greek text see Magdelaine (ed.)Histoire du texte p. 457.4 (cf. vol. 4 p. 574.9 Littré). The English translation is taken from Hippocrates p. 189. The Syriac text is taken from Pognon (ed.) Une version vol. 1 p. 27.11–12 the Arabic text from Tytler (ed.) Fuṣūl p. 58.3.

59

For the Greek text see Magdelaine (ed.)Histoire du texte p. 434.1 (cf. vol. 4 p. 538.4 Littré). The Syriac text is taken from Pognon (ed.) Une version vol. 1 p. 21.6 the Arabic text from Tytler (ed.) Fuṣūl p. 42.15.

61

See e.g. Biesterfeldt (ed.)Galens Traktat pp. 18–19 (Ḥubayš) Strohmaier (ed.) Galen. Über die Verschiedenheit p. 31 (ʿĪsā) and Cooper (ed.) Galen. De diebus decretoriis p. 83 (Ḥunayn).

62

For Bar Bahlūl see PormannThe Oriental Tradition pp. 14–15.

64

See also Brock“Syriac Background” p. 160.

65

For the Greek text see Magdelaine (ed.)Histoire du texte p. 382.2–3 (cf. vol. 4 p. 466.9–10 Littré). The Syriac text is taken from Pognon (ed.) Une version vol. 1 p. 4.30–31 the Arabic text from Tytler (ed.) Fuṣūl p. 6.6.

67

For the Greek text see Magdelaine (ed.)Histoire du texte p. 375.1 (cf. vol. 4 p. 458.1 Littré). The English translation is taken from Hippocrates p. 99. The Syriac text is taken from Pognon (ed.) Une version vol. 1 p. 3.3 the Arabic text from Tytler (ed.) Fuṣūl p. 1.1–2.

70

For the Greek text see Magdelaine (ed.)Histoire du texte p. 379.7–8 (cf. vol. 4 p. 464.3–4 Littré). The English translation is taken from Hippocrates p. 103. The Syriac text is taken from Pognon (ed.) Une version vol. 1 p. 4.12–13 the Arabic text from Tytler (ed.) Fuṣūl p. 4.7–8.

72

For the Greek text see Magdelaine (ed.)Histoire du texte p. 452.5 (cf. vol. 4 p. 568.5 Littré). The English translation is taken from Hippocrates p. 185. The Syriac text is taken from Pognon (ed.) Une version vol. 1 p. 26.9 the Arabic text from Tytler (ed.) Fuṣūl p. 55.7. In Aphor. VII.54 Ḥunayn also translated ἡ κοιλίη with the meaning “cavity” as ‮فضاء‬‎ (see Tytler (ed.) Fuṣūl p. 65.2).

74

For the Greek text see Magdelaine (ed.)Histoire du texte p. 452.9 (cf. vol. 4 p. 568.9–10 Littré). The English translation is taken from Hippocrates p. 185. The Syriac text is taken from Pognon (ed.) Une version vol. 1 p. 26.12 the Arabic text from Tytler (ed.) Fuṣūl p. 55.10–11.

76

For the Greek text see Magdelaine (ed.)Histoire du texte pp. 431.9–432.1 (cf. vol. 4 pp. 534.13–536.1 Littré). The English translation is taken from Hippocrates pp. 159–161 (slightly modified). The Syriac text is taken from Pognon (ed.) Une version vol. 1 p. 2‮‭0‬‬‎.1‮‭6‬‬‎ the Arabic text from Tytler (ed.) Fuṣūl p. 41.11–12.

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