The Legal Consequences of Faits Accomplis

Reconciling Victims’ and Settlers’ Rights Following Occupation

in Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies
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This paper discusses the legal consequences following the transfer of settlers into occupied territories more precisely the dichotomy between the rights of settlers the rights of protected persons victims. At the heart of the matter are the questions: What to do with settlers transferred into occupied territories in the post-conflict period? Should settlers be removed from the territory where they were transferred to allow victims to access restitution? In the alternative, should settlers be considered to have acquired a de facto ‘right to stay’ or a right not to be expelled under international human rights law the principle of humanity? Do settlers have rights? Do all settlers have the same rights? There is no consensual answer to these sensitive questions where proposed solutions vary on a spectrum from collective expulsion to the unconditional integration of settlers. Emerging from a case analysis is an international response to settler transfer that is complaisant of fait accompli resulting in a balance tilting in favor of the status quo to the not infrequent detriment of protected victims’ rights. This article attempts to reconcile conflicting rights by proposing a response framework cognizant of all relevant branches of international law.

The Legal Consequences of Faits Accomplis

Reconciling Victims’ and Settlers’ Rights Following Occupation

in Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies

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References

20

Art. 8(1)(2)(b) Rome Statutesupra note 5 (emphasis added).

21

Cottiersupra note 17 at 365–366 369.

25

 See A. De Zayas‘Forced Population Transfers’Max Planck Encyclopedia (2013) at para. 14.

27

Al-Khasawneh and Hatanosupra note 24 at introduction.

28

Al-Khasawnehsupra note 26 at Annex II 141 Arts. 3 and 10.

30

 See Ronensupra note 2 at 197; E. Kolodner ‘Population Transfer: The Effects of Settler Infusion Policies on a Host Population’s Right to Self-Determination’ 27 New York University Journal of International Law and Politics (1994–1995) at 231.

35

Kolodnersupra note 30 at 202.

36

 See Ronensupra note 2 at 239–242.

38

 See Ronensupra note 2 at 248.

40

Palleysupra note 3 at 247.

41

Trindadesupra note 32 at 472–476.

42

Benvenistisupra note 38 at 314.

43

Palleysupra note 3 at 247.

44

Kolodnersupra note 30 at 202; Palley supra note 3 at 246; Benvenisti supra note 37 at 314.

48

Ronensupra note 2 at 232–234.

49

Drewsupra note 4 at 239.

57

By 2001here was more settlers than indigenous Turkish Cypriot. Palley ibid. at 70–71 173; See also Meindersma and Arakelian supra note 53 at 62.

61

Palleysupra note 53 at 71–72 165.

67

 See Ronensupra note 2 at 253.

68

Palleysupra note 53 at 68 227.

77

 See Grosssupra note 31 at 17.

82

Cançado Trindadesupra note 33 at 380.

84

Al-Khasawnehsupra note 26 at para. 60.

101

Ronensupra note 3 at 236.

105

Palleysupra note 3 at 249.

107

 See Crawfordsupra note 75 at 216.

118

De Greiffsupra note 113 at 42–43.

120

Teitelsupra note 118 at 120.

123

Palleysupra note 3 at 248 (emphasis in original).

128

Palleysupra note 4 at 253.

131

Teitelsupra note 117 at 122.

132

Palleysupra note 3 at 248.

133

Teitelsupra note 117 at 137.

150

Amnesty Internationalsupra note 148 at 6; see Special Rapporteur Lars-Anders Baer Study on the Status of Implementation of the Chittagong Hill Tracts Accord of 1997unecosoc Doc. E/C19/2011/6 18 February 2011.

153

Amnesty Internationalsupra note 148 at 7; Baer ibid. para 51.

156

Drewsupra note 4 at 229–231 234.

158

Drewsupra note 4 at 235.

167

Ronensupra note 2 at 229.

173

Ronensupra note 2 at 210.

178

Barringtonsupra note 175 at 179.

180

Yiftachel and Ghanemsupra note 174 at 662.

181

Country Report: Estoniasupra note 179 at 3.

182

Yiftachel and Ghanemsupra note 174 at 661.

184

Yiftachel and Ghanemsupra note 174 at 663.

188

Barringtonsupra note 174 at 191; Country Report: Latvia supra note 171 at 6.

195

Ronensupra note 2 at 216; Barrington supra note 174 at 164.

196

Country Report: Latviasupra note 171 at 21.

199

Barringtonsupra note 174 at 167 188.

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