Strengthening the Principle of Distinction?

A Critical Appraisal of the icrc’s Continuous Combat Function

in Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies
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The primary impetus for the Interpretive Guidance on the Notion of Direct Participation in Hostilities by the International Committee of the Red Cross was the need for an accepted understanding of the notion of ‘direct participation in hostilities’. The Interpretive Guidance recommends that in non-international armed conflicts organised armed groups consist only of persons whose continuous function for the groups involves taking direct part in hostilities. The objective of this article is to assess to what extent the ‘continuous combat function’ category strengthens the protection of civilians under the principle of distinction.

Strengthening the Principle of Distinction?

A Critical Appraisal of the icrc’s Continuous Combat Function

in Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies

Sections

References

20

Kolb and Hydesupra note 18 at 115–117.

22

Kolb and Hydesupra note 18 at 116.

40

Kolb and Hydesupra note 18 at 197 f.

43

Akandesupra note 30 at. 183.

49

Kinsellasupra note 37 at 24–25 34.

51

Hartigansupra note 50 at 211.

52

Gadesupra note 47 at 222.

53

Hartigansupra note 50 at 211.

54

Kinsellasupra note 37 at 194.

55

Hartigansupra note 50 at 215–6.

63

Richemondsupra note 46 at 1018.

67

Kinsellasupra note 37 at 84.

73

H. Wheaton in Caminssupra note 65 at 867.

74

Caminssupra note 65 at 867.

84

Kinsellasupra note 37 at 113.

89

J. Kleffner‘From “Belligerents” to “Fighters” and Civilians Directly Participating in Hostilities – On the Principle of Distinction in Non-International Armed Conflicts One Hundred Years after the Second Hague Peace Conference’Netherlands International Law Review 315 (2007) at 324.

92

Kleffnersupra note 89 at 324; also see icrcsupra note 1 at 28.

93

Robertssupra note 82 at 39.

95

 See also Caminssupra note 65 at 875.

96

Kleffnersupra note 89 at 321.

97

Kolb and Hydesupra note 18 at 127.

101

Robertssupra note 82 at 39.

102

Kleffnersupra note 89 at 323.

106

Bothesupra note 90 at 7.

109

Caminssupra note 65 at 854.

111

Watkinsupra note 30 at 642. It is interesting to note that this category was recognised by the United States Supreme Court in its 1942 Ex parte Quirin decision; see Christensen supra note 108 at 283 286.

166

Melzersupra note 115 at 848.

173

van Schaacksupra note 172 at 299.

174

Watkinsupra note 30 at 681.

176

Watkinsupra note 30 at 680; Fenrick supra note 29 at 293.

177

Watkinsupra note 30 at 681; Fenrick supra note 29 at 293.

178

Watkinsupra note 30 at 691.

181

Watkinsupra note 30 at 675.

183

Melzersupra note 115 at 848.

191

Fenricksupra note 29 at 290.

194

Watkinsupra note 30 at 674.

201

Melzersupra note 199 at 54.

208

Melzersupra note 115 at 887 [emphasis omitted].

209

Melzersupra note 115 at 850.

214

Akandesupra note 30 at 188.

218

van der Toornsupra note 28 at 10.

224

Melzersupra note 115 at 839.

228

As noted in Melzersupra note 205 at 14.

229

van der Toornsupra note 28 at 15.

231

Melzersupra note 119 at 11.

233

Melzersupra note 205 at 14.

236

Watkinsupra note 30 at 661.

238

Watkinsupra note 30 at 661; icrc supra note 1 at 44.

239

Watkinsupra note 30 at 688.

241

Alstonsupra note 207 para. 66.

242

Schmittsupra note 196 at 312.

245

Melzersupra note 199 at 62.

249

Kleffnersupra note 89 at 323.

251

Melzersupra note 115 at 854; S. Pomper supra note 250 at 308.

252

Melzersupra note 115 at 854.

257

Kleffnersupra note 89 at 322.

260

S. Pompersupra note 250 at 308.

262

Melzersupra note 119 at 5.

265

Melzersupra note 179 at 36.

266

Coombessupra note 256 at 315; Schmitt disagrees and argues that this approach is operationally feasible and at the same time maintains the protection of peaceful (or uninvolved) civilians in the conflict. See Schmitt supra note 196 at 313.

267

Melzersupra note 264 at 21.

270

Corn and Jenkssupra note 103 at 332.

271

Watkinsupra note 30 at 677.

272

Corn and Jenkssupra note 103 at 344.

275

Geißsupra note 273 at 122.

278

Geißsupra note 273 at 123.

279

Geiß and Siegristsupra note 274 at 21.

280

Corn and Jenkssupra note 103 at 350; See icrcsupra note 1 at 81.

281

Corn and Jenkssupra note 103 at 350.

283

Melzersupra note 264 at 20

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