1. The origin of the final - in the nominatives of noun stems in s, j, and h (representing proto-Indo-European k, ĝ, and ĝh) and of the corresponding before the case endings -bhi and -bhya is not merely one of the minor problems of the historical grammar of Indo-Aryan. Since it has often been assumed that the retroflex stop indirectly reflects a palatal stop [t'] or an affricate [tś] in proto-Indo-Iranian, it is also of some importance for the reconstruction of the prehistoric development of Iranian, and especially for the interpretation of Old Persian , for the PIE. reconstruction of the phonemes traditionally denoted by kp or k, etc., and for the relations between centum and satem languages. In view of the far-reaching theories which, partly at least, have been based upon the final - of Sanskrit it may be useful to reconsider the problem.