Patronage of Śaivism and Other Religious Groups in Western India under the Dynasties of the Kaṭaccuris, Gurjaras and Sendrakas from the 5th to the 8th Centuries

in Indo-Iranian Journal
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Southern Gujarat and north-western Maharashtra constituted a highly contested region in the early medieval period, between the 5th and 8th centuries. The majority of the royal grants were in favour of Vedic Brahmins without any specific Śaiva, Vaiṣṇava, or other sectarian leanings, the rest in favour of Hindu temples. Whereas the Traikūṭakas had been Vaiṣṇavas, Kaṭaccuri Kṛṣṇarāja is described as ‘devoted to Paśupati’. Not only among the Kaṭaccuris, but also among the Gurjaras, Sendrakas, and Lāṭa Calukyas, there was a strong tendency to use the religious epithet paramamāheśvara, ‘worshipper of Śiva’, homogeneously. Individual Gurjara and Sendraka charters record endowments for the worship of Āśramadeva and Alaṅghyeśvara, and one prince of the Lāṭa Calukyas is said to have worshipped a religious mendicant whose name ended in °śivabhaṭṭāraka. But it was not before the 11th century that the epigraphic evidence for the institutionalization of Śaivism in the region increased remarkably.

Patronage of Śaivism and Other Religious Groups in Western India under the Dynasties of the Kaṭaccuris, Gurjaras and Sendrakas from the 5th to the 8th Centuries

in Indo-Iranian Journal

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5

Cf. V.V. Mirashi (1955a) 24 (no. 8 pl. 1 lines 1f.); 27 (no. 9 pl. 1 lines 1f.); Shobhana Gokhale (1972a) 9 (pl. 1 lines 1f.); Shobhana Gokhale (1972b) 10 (pl. 1 lines 1f.). For this epithet see also Alexis Sanderson (2009) 59. For the use of religious epithets in Sanskrit epigraphs see Annette Schmiedchen (2010/11).

6

Cf. V.V. Mirashi (1955a) CXLVII. Traikūṭaka Dahrasena had performed an aśvamedha sacrifice to proclaim his independent status; see V.V. Mirashi (1955a) 24 (no. 8 pl. 1 line 2): [a]śvamedhāharttā śrīmahārājadahrasenaḥ.

11

According to H.D. Sankalia (1955) 108this is one of the first epigraphic references to a name beginning with śaṅkara°.

13

V.V. Mirashi (1955a) 50 (no. 14 pl. 2 lines 32f.): pāśupatarājñīrājñī[sic!]-anantamahāyīvijñāpanayā.

16

Cf. V.V. Mirashi (1955a) 41 (no. 12 pl. 1 line 1): vijayaskandhāvārād ujjayanīvāsakāc …; 49 (no. 14 pl. 1 line 1): vijayaskandhāvārād vaidiśavāsakāc …; 54 (no. 15 pl. 1 line 1): vijayaskandhāvārād ānandapuravāsakāc

17

Cf. K.V. Ramesh / S.P. Tewari (1990) 6 (no. 3 line 5); 11 (no. 5 line 6); 20 (no. 9 line 7); 22 (no. 10 line 3); 26 (no. 12 line 7); 28 (no. 13 line 6).

18

See above fn. 16 and A.S. Gadre (1935) 667 (pl. 1 line 1).

20

Cf. Shobhana Gokhale (1972b) 11 (pl. 2 line 14); V.V. Mirashi (1955a) 41 (no. 12 pl. 2 line 21); V.V. Mirashi (1951/52 1957) 120 (pl. 2 line 16).

21

Cf. V.V. Mirashi (1955a) 77 (no. 19 pl. 2 line 16); 80 (no. 20 pl. 1 line 14); A.S. Gadre (1934) 87 (no. 4 pl. 2 line 21); Lakṣmaṇabhāī Bhojaka (1978/79) 116 (pl. 2 lines 32f.); Eugen Hultzsch (1905/06) 198 (no. 2 pl. 2 line 41).

22

Cf. V.V. Mirashi (1955a) 62 (no. 16 pl. 2 line 35); 70 (no. 17 pl. 2 line 35); Eugen Hultzsch (1905/06) 193 (no. 1 pl. 2 line 40); K.B. Pathak (1909/10) 87 (pl. 2 lines 39f.).

25

Cf. Hans Bakker (2007) 1–2; Hans Bakker (2010) 518; Hans Bakker (2011) 22 and 31.

30

See for instance V.V. Mirashi (1955a) 60 (no. 16 pl. 1 line 4); 68 (no. 17 pl. 1 line 4).

31

See for instance V.V. Mirashi (1955a) 63 (no. 16 pl. 2 line 52); 71 (no. 17 pl. 2 lines 50f.).

32

See for instance V.V. Mirashi (1955b) 620 (no. 121 pl. 1 line 13).

33

Cf. V.V. Mirashi (1955a) 99 (no. 23 plate 2 lines 4f.); 106 (no. 24 plate 1 line 28–plate 2 line 30): nārāyaṇa iva sudarśanacakrakṣapitavipakṣo na punaḥ kṛṣṇasvabhāvaḥ hara ivāṅgīkṛtabhūtinicayo na punar bhujaṅgaparivṛtaḥ ‘whose enemies are destroyed by [his] capable army as Nārayaṇa destroys the enemies with [his] discus Sudarśana but who unlike the dark-complexioned Nārāyaṇa has no evil disposition; who has acquired an abundance of wealth as Hara takes a large amount of ashes [to smear his body with] but who unlike the Hara covered by serpents is not surrounded by dissolute [people]’.

34

Cf. V.V. Mirashi (1955a) 61 (no. 16 pl. 2 line 41).

35

D.B. Diskalkar (1923) 33–41 (pl. 2 line 23). The name Rudra[ka] is sometimes written ludra[ka] in the Maitraka charters.

36

Cf. V.V. Mirashi (1955a) 99f. (no. 23 plate 2 lines 9–16): yathā mayā … kemajju[grāmani]viṣṭāśramadevapādebhyaḥ gandhadhūpapuṣpadīpa+++saṃ[g]ītakasatraprava[r*]tanasatmārjjanodayena devakulasya khaṇḍa[sphuṭita]+++saṃskāranavakarmm[o]ktādyutsarppaṇārtthaṃ śṛībharukacchaviṣayāntarggatakemajjugrāme grāmasyāparadakṣiṇasīṃni pañcāśannivartta[napramā]ṇaṃ bhūkhaṇḍaḥ[sic!] … devadāyatvena pratipāditaṃ ‘that I have granted as an endowment in favour of a god a piece of land measuring fifty nivartana in Kemajjugrāma belonging to the Śrī-Bharukaccha district on the south-western boundary of the village … to Āśramadeva established in Kemajjugrāma for fragrance incense flowers lamps … music the accomplishment of charitable feeding [and] purification [and] for promoting repairs [of those parts] of the temple which are cracked into pieces … new construction and other [activities]’.

38

V.V. Mirashi (1955a) 114 (no. 25 plate 2 line 24). Alaṅghya means ‘impassable’ or ‘inviolable’.

39

V.V. Mirashi (1955a) 114 (no. 25 plate 2 lines 20–26).

40

V.V. Mirashi (1955a) 129 (no. 28 pl. 1 lines 10f.): harapārvat[ī]yanāṭakakaraṇavikhyātakavi°.

43

Cf. J.F. Fleet (1880) 123. Fleet’s arguments (the use of ‘Gūrjara characters’ the name Satyāśraya for Calukya Kīrtivarman I and the epithet paramamāheśvara for Calukya Pulakeśin II) are not very strong. But some phrases in the grant deviate remarkably from the usual wording (ibid. 124 [pl. 2 lines 19f.]: mātāpitror uddiśya ātmanaś ca vipulapuṇyayaśobhivṛ[d*]dhyartthaṃ balāmmaṭhakkuravijñaptikayā).

44

Cf. J.F. Fleet (1880) 124 (pl. 2 lines 20f.): kāpāleśvarasya guggulapūjānimitta[ṃ*] ta[n*]nivāsimahāvratibhya upabhogāya. The use of ‘Kāpāleśvara’ has been explained by J.F. Fleet (1880) 125 thus: “The word in the original is Kāpāleśvara which must be rendered by ‘the temple or establishment of Kapāleśvara’.” D.N. Lorenzen (1972) 27 gives a different interpretation: “The fact that the god is called Kāpāleśvara (Lord of the Kāpālas) and not Kapāleśvara (Lord of the Skull) helps to confirm that the Mahāvratins of the temple were Kāpālikas.” For an explanation of guggulapūjā see ibid. 27: “The term Guggula-pūjā probably denotes the penance of placing hot or burning guggula (bdellium a fragrant gum) on one’s head.”

46

Cf. V.V. Mirashi (1955) 150f. (no. 31 pl. 2a line 28–pl. 2b line 41). According to the postscript of this charter the interest of a certain amount of money granted was also supposed to meet the annual cost of bdellium (guggula) for the god Bhogeśvara; cf. ibid. 152 (no. 31 pl. 3b lines 60f.): … rūpakaśataṃ dattaṃ tasya ca rūpakaśatasya vṛddhiḥ guggulamūlyaṃ bhogeśvaradevasya varṣaprativarṣaṃ

48

Cf. Georg Bühler (1883) 87–89.

49

Richard Salomon (1998) 286 (no. 10 pl. 1 lines 14–17): elāpurācalagatādbhutasanniveśam / yad vīkṣya vismitavimānacarāmarendrāḥ / eta[t*] svayambhu śivadhāma na kṛtrime śrīṛ [/*] dṛṣṭedṛśīti satataṃ bahu carccayanti // [12*] bhūyas tathāvidhakṛtau vyavasāyahāni[r] [/*] etan mayā katham aho kṛtam ity akasmāt / karttāpi yasya khalu vismayam āpa śilpī / tannāma kīrttanam [a]kāryyata yena rājñā /[/13*]. “That king caused to be constructed a temple (kīrttanam) of marvelous construction on Mount Elāpura and named it thereafter (tannāma). When the astonished gods behold it as they fly by in their aerial chariots they always speculate upon it at length saying: ‘This must be a natural abode of Śiva; for such beauty is never seen in an artificial (construction)’; even the artisan who created it was (himself) amazed and said: ‘I cannot bring myself to endeavor to create such a thing again; how is it that I made this?’” (ibid. 291f.).

50

Cf. V.V. Mirashi (1959) 183–188.

53

Cf. V.V. Mirashi (1977) 67f. (no. 11 pl. 2b line 49–pl. 3 line 59): viṣay[i]bhāiyapena … viracitaśrībhāiyapeśvaradevāyatanān[sic!] nivāsināṃ tapodhanāṇāṃ grāsācchādanārtthaṃ gandhapuṣpadhūpadīpananaivedyatām[b]ūlagītavādyanṛtyādidevabhogakaraṇāya khaṇḍasphuṭitasamuddharaṇārtthañ ca … kṛtahastodakātisarggeṇa paścimāmnāyavinirggataśrīvāḍācāryaśiṣyajñānaśiva[bhaṭṭā]rakāṇāṃ … pratipāditaḥ ‘… was granted to Jñānaśivabhaṭṭāraka the disciple of Śrī-Vāḍācārya from the ‘western tradition’ for food and clothing of the ascetics dwelling in the Bhāiyapeśvara temple erected by the district head Bhāiyapa … for pleasing the god with fragrance flowers incense lamps offerings betel vocal and instrumental music dance etc. and for the restoration [of those parts] which are cracked into pieces’.

54

Cf. V.V. Mirashi (1977) 281 (no. 63 line 13).

55

Cf. Hans Bakker / Harunaga Isaacson (2004) 30f. and 61f.

56

Cf. V.V. Mirashi (1977) 160 (no. 31 lines 2f.): saurāṣṭrīyaśrī[so]manāthadevāya pūjāsatkārārthaṃ.

57

Cf. V.V. Mirashi (1977) 160 (no. 31 lines 11f.). For a discussion of the possible meaning of the terms caitrika and pavitrika see ibid. 159.

58

Cf. Bhagvanlal Indraji (1883) 124 (pl. 2a line 22–pl. 2b line 30): gotrānvaye yamaniyamasvādhyāyadhyānānuṣṭhānarataparama[ś]aivaśrīsomadeva-ācāryāḥ tasya [ś]iṣyāḥ paramagurubhaktisaṃpannā anekaśivāgamatattvajñāḥ [ś]abdaśāstravi[ś]āradāḥ dīkṣāparokṣādānasamarthāḥ śrīmatśarvvadevācāryāḥ rājaguroḥ (read: rājaguravaḥ) tebhyaḥ … gurudakṣiṇāyāṃ … ciṃculigrāmaḥ pradattaḥ ‘In the gotra lineage there was the venerable Somadevācārya (pluralis majestatis) a paramaśaiva who dedicated himself to major and minor observances the study of texts meditation and the cult. His disciple (pluralis majestatis) is the venerable Śarvadevācārya the royal preceptor who is full of devotion for [his] great preceptor knows the meaning of many Śivāgamas is versed in grammatical treatises [and] competent to bestow dīkṣā and [to grant] insight (parokṣā). To him the Ciṃculi village … was given as gurudakṣinā.’

59

Cf. Franz Kielhorn (1894) 226f. (C1 stanzas 31–35).

60

Cf. Franz Kielhorn (1894) 227 (C2 stanzas 2–5).

61

Cf. Franz Kielhorn (1894) 221–228 (C2 stanza 14): kṣatrācāravicāravākpaṭur abhūd govindanāmā [nṛ]pas tadrājñī kila nāyakī bhavabhayād bhaktā sadā yā hare / tābhyāṃ śaṃkaramaṃdiraṃ suruciraṃ niṣpādya vistāritā kīrttir dharmayaśaḥ kulaṃ ca vimalaṃ pradyotitaṃ cātmanaḥ //.

62

Cf. Hans Bakker (2011) 29f. fn. 25.

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