Globalization, Chinese-Culture and the Expansion of Higher Education System in Taiwan

in International Journal of Chinese Education
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Abstract

The global market gives nation-states no choice but to be subject to its rules. As a result, they need to modify themselves to meet its requirements in order to gain access to the considerable amount of capitalist profit available. This adjustment is manifested in their higher education policies, as witnessed by the fact that many countries have been enlarging their higher education capacity in order to cultivate more human capital. This functions as a critical element in enhancing their international competitiveness in the global market. As Taiwan is a key member of this market, the above relationship is significant in the Taiwanese context. However, although globalization exercises a profound influence on higher education policy in a society such as Taiwan, social culture also plays a role in conditioning such policy. This essay argues that the significant expansion in the Taiwanese higher education system has occurred as a result of a combination of globalization and Chinese-culture.

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References

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21

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22

F. Rizvi, and B. Lingard, “Globalization and the Changing Nature in the OECD’s Educational Work,” in Education, Globalization and Social Change, eds. H. Lauder, P. Brown, A. Dillabough and A.H. Halsey (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006).

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A. Giddens, The Consequences of Modernity (Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1990).

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J.E. Stiglitz, Globalization and Its Discontents (London: W.W. Norton & Company, 2002).

29

I. Wallerstein, World-Systems Analysis (London: Duke University Press, 2004).

30

R. Dale, “Globalization: A New World for Comparative Education?,” in Discourse Formation in Comparative Education 2nd rev. ed., ed. J. Schriewer (Oxford: Peter Lang, 2003).

31

N. Luhmann, Social Systems (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995).

32

B. Lingard, “It is and It Isn’t: Vernacular Globalization, Educational Policy, and Restructuring,” in Globalization and Education: Critical Perspectives, eds. N.C. Burbules and C.A. Torres (N.Y.: Routledge, 2000).

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34

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35

B. Lingard, “It is and It Isn’t: Vernacular Globalization, Educational Policy, and Restructuring,” in Globalization and Education: Critical Perspectives, eds. N.C. Burbules and C.A. Torres (N.Y.: Routledge, 2000). F. Rizvi, “International Education and the Production of Global Imagination,” in Education, Globalization and Social Change, eds. H. Lauder, P. Brown, A. Dillabough and A.H. Halsey (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000). S. Robertson, X. Bonal, and R. Dale. “GATS and the Education Service Industry: the Politics of Scale and Global Reterritorialization,” in Education, Globalization & Social Change, eds. H. Lauder, P. Brown, J. Dillabough and A. Halsey (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006).

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N. Luhmann, Social Systems (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995).

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N.P. Stromquist, Education in a Globalized World (Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002).

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41

B. Lingard, “It is and It Isn’t: Vernacular Globalization, Educational Policy, and Restructuring,” in Globalization and Education: Critical Perspectives, eds. N.C. Burbules and C.A. Torres (N.Y.: Routledge, 2000).

42

F. Rizvi, and B. Lingard, “Globalization and the Changing Nature in the OECD’s Educational Work,” in Education, Globalization and Social Change, eds. H. Lauder, P. Brown, A. Dillabough and A.H. Halsey (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006).

43

M. Apple, “Between Neoliberalism and Neoconservatism: Education and Conservatism in a Global Context,” in Globalization and Education: Critical Perspectives, eds. N.C. Burbules and C.A. Torres (N.Y.: Routledge, 2000).

44

R.A. Morrow, and C.A. Torres, “The State, Globalization, and Educational Policy,” in Globalization and Education: Critical Perspectives, eds. N.C. Burbules and C.A. Torres (N.Y.: Routledge, 2000).

45

B. Lingard, “It is and It Isn’t: Vernacular Globalization, Educational Policy, and Restructuring,” in Globalization and Education: Critical Perspectives, eds. N.C. Burbules and C.A. Torres (N.Y.: Routledge, 2000).

46

F. Rizvi, and B. Lingard, “Globalization and the Changing Nature in the OECD’s Educational Work,” in Education, Globalization and Social Change, eds. H. Lauder, P. Brown, A. Dillabough and A.H. Halsey (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006).

48

J.W. Myer, “The Effects of Education as an Institution,” American Journal of Sociology 83, no. 1 (1977).

50

R.A. Morrow, and C.A. Torres, “The State, Globalization, and Educational Policy,” in Globalization and Education: Critical Perspectives, eds. N.C. Burbules and C.A. Torres (N.Y.: Routledge, 2000). M. Olssen, J. Codd, and A. O’Neill. Education Policy: Globalization, Citizenship and Democracy (London: Sage, 2004). N.P. Stromquist, Education in a Globalized World. (Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002).

51

B. Lingard, “It is and It Isn’t: Vernacular Globalization, Educational Policy, and Restructuring,” in Globalization and Education: Critical Perspectives, eds. N.C. Burbules and C.A. Torres (N.Y.: Routledge, 2000).

54

T.H. Chiang, “A Study on the Relationship between Educational Achievement and Social Mobility in Taiwan,” Educazione Comparata 41 (2000). ——, “The Problems and Social Meanings of Considerably Enlarging the Capacity of Higher Education,” Comparative Education (Taiwan) 54 (2003). ——, “Disparities in the Development of Taiwan Higher Education,” Tsinghua Journal of Education 30, no. 3 (2009).

56

M. Young, The Rise of the Meritocracy (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1961).

57

T. Parsons, The Social System (London: Tavistock, 1951). T. Parsons, “The School Class as a Social System: Some of Its Functions in American Society,” in Education, Economy and Society, eds. A.H. Halsey, J. Floud and C.A. Anderson (N.Y.: Free, 1961). Collins, R., The Credential Society: An Historical Sociology of Education and Stratification (N.Y.: John Wiley, 1979).

58

P. Brown, “Cultural Capital and Social Exclusion: Some Observations on Recent Trends in Education, Employment, and the Labour Market,” in Education, Culture, Economy and Society, eds. A.H. Halsey, H. Lauder, P. Brown and A.S. Wells (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997). T.H. Chiang, “A Study on the Relationship between Educational Achievement and Social Mobility in Taiwan,” Educazione Comparata 41 (2000). ——, “Disparities in the Development of Taiwan Higher Education,” Tsinghua Journal of Education 30, no. 3 (2009).

59

B. Bernstein, Pedagogy, Symbolic Control and Identity (London: Taylor & Francis, 1996). P. Bourdieu, The Field of Cultural Production: Essays on Art and Literature (Cambridge: Polity, 1993).

60

S. Bowles, and H. Gintis, Schooling in Capitalist America (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1976).

61

L. Althusser, Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays (London: NLB, 1971).

62

I. Illich, Deschooling Society (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1973).

63

Collins, R., The Credential Society: An Historical Sociology of Education and Stratification (N.Y.: John Wiley, 1979).

64

J. Schriewer, “Historicizing Comparative Methodology,” in Discourse Formation in Comparative Education 2nd rev. ed., ed. J. Schriewer (Oxford: Peter Lang, 2003). A. Schutz, The Phenomenology of the Social World (Chicago: Northwestern University Press, 1972).

65

K.S. Yang, Indigenous Psychological Research in Chinese Society (Taipei: Qui-Guan, 2002). K.S. Yang, and M.H. Ye. “Familism and General Familism,” in Sino Psychology, eds. K.S. Yang, et al. (Taipei: Yuan-Liu, 2005).

66

B. Bernstein, Pedagogy, Symbolic Control and Identity (London: Taylor & Francis, 1996).

67

K.K. Hwang, “Face and Favor: the Chinese Power Game. American.” Journal of Sociology 92, no. 4 (1987). ——, “The Theory of Face Culture in Sino Society,” in Sino Psychology, eds. K.S. Yang, et al. (Taipei: Yuan-Liu, 2005).

68

G.H. Mead, Mind, Self and Society (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1934).

69

E. Durkheim, The Division of Labour in Society (N.Y.: Free, 1933).

70

J.S. Coleman, Foundations of Social Theory (Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1990).

71

J.W. Wang, “The Reason and Myth of Education Fanaticism: A Historical Review.” Indigenous Psychological Research in Chinese Society 17 (2002).

73

T.H. Chiang, “The Influence of Sino-Culture on the Meanings of University Diplomas in Taiwan: The Cultural Gap between the West and Taiwan,” Journal of Global Economy 6, no. 5 (2010).

74

A. Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks of Antonio Gramsci (N.Y.: International Publishers, 1971). M. Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (reprinted). (London: Penguin, 1991).

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