Students as Consumers: Commodifying or Democratising Learning?

in International Journal of Chinese Education
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Abstract

The positioning of students as ‘consumers’ of education is becoming a global phenomenon. This paper begins by drawing on insights from both the marketing and education literatures to assess the impact of this development on the processes and outcomes of education, on the professional practices of faculty and on widening participation. Pierre Bourdieu’s conceptual framework is then applied to analyse how consumer mechanisms are mediated by the organisational cultures and practices within universities. These theoretical insights are combined with data from different national contexts to identify both positive and negative aspects of this trend. The paper goes on to consider the critique of consumerism as something that promotes commodification and passive learning. Some other ways of empowering students more actively in their learning, including ‘student voice’ and ‘co-production’ initiatives that are currently fashionable in Western policy contexts, are then discussed. While these are seen by some commentators as examples of ‘pre-figurative democratic practice’, others have identified them as having the potential to alienate students through tokenistic provision or as serving a neo-liberal policy agenda through the ‘responsibilisation’ of students. The paper concludes by suggesting that such initiatives may have the potential to challenge academic complacency without undermining core academic values.

Students as Consumers: Commodifying or Democratising Learning?

in International Journal of Chinese Education

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3

L. MorleyTheorising Quality in Higher Education (London: IOE Press2004).

4

J. WilliamsConsuming Higher Education: Why learning can’t be bought (London: Bloomsbury2012).

9

BISHigher Education: students at the heart of the system (London: Department for Business, Innovation and Skills2011).

10

J. Currie and Vidovich L.“Privatization and competition policies for Australian universities,” International Journal of Educational Development 20 no. 2 (2000): 135-151.

13

S.J. Ball“Performativity, Commodification and Community: An I-spy guide to the neoliberal university,” British Journal of Educational Studies 60 no. 1 (2012): 17-28. R. Deem “Globalisation new managerialism academic capitalism and entrepreneuralism in universities: is the local dimension still important?” Comparative Education 37 no. 1 (2001): 7-20. D.D. Dill “Higher education markets and public policy” Higher Education Policy 10 (1997): 167-185.

15

P. BourdieuHomo academicus (Cambridge: Polity Press1988). A.H. Halsey and Trow M.A. The British academics (Boston: Harvard University Press 1971). M. Henkell Academic identities and policy change in higher education (London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers 2000).

16

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17

W.W. Powell and DiMaggio P.G.The new institutionalism in organisational analysis (New Jersey: Princeton Press1991).

18

See for example R. Naidoo“Fields and institutional strategy: Bourdieu on the relationship between higher education, inequality and society,” British Journal of Sociology of Education 25 no. 4 (2004): 457-471. V. Tomusk “Reproduction of the ‘state nobility’ in Eastern Europe: past patterns and new practices” British Journal of Sociology of Education 21 no. 2 (2000): 269-282.

21

P. BourdieuThe state nobility (Cambridge: Polity Press1996).

22

R. Naidoo“The ‘Third Way’” 24-38.

23

Bourdieu (1986) differentiates between ‘scientific capital’ which is related to scientific authority or intellectual renown and ‘academic capital’ which is linked to power over the instruments of reproduction of the university body.

25

J. Enders and Jongbloed B.Public-private dynamics in higher education expectations developments and outcomes (Bielefeld: Transcript2007). C. Middleton “Models of state and market in the modernisation of higher education” British Journal of Sociology of Education 21 no. 4 (2000): 537-554.

26

B. Foley and Goldstein H.Measuring Success: League tables in the public sector (London: British Academy2012).

30

A. McCulloch“The student as co-producer: learning from public administration about the student-university relationship,” Studies in Higher Education 34 (2009): 171-183.

31

N. Mendleson and Polonsky M.J.“Using strategic alliances to develop credible green vegetables in Scotland,” Journal of Consumer Marketing 12 no. 2 (1995): 18-24.

32

G. DrummondConsumer confusion reduction strategies in education (Buckingham: Open University Press2004).

33

A. McCulloch“The student” 171-183.

35

F. HirschSocial limits to growth (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press1977).

36

S. Marginson“Dynamics of national and global competition in higher education,” Higher Education 52 (2006): 1-39.

37

Y. Moogan Baron S. and Harris K.“Decision-Making Behaviour of Potential Higher Education Students,” Higher Education Quarterly 53 no. 3 (1999): 211-228.

41

C. Parr“Will Moocs fail to give students help they need?” Times Higher EducationFebruary 14 2013. http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/news/will-moocs-fail-to-give-students-help-they-need/2001478.article.

42

J. Biggs“Enhancing Teaching through Constructive Alignment,” Higher Education 32 no. 2 (1996): 347-364.

43

L. Shulman“Knowledge and Teaching: Foundations of the New Reform,” Harvard Educational Review 57 (1987): 1-22.

44

B. BernsteinPedagogy Symbolic Control and Identity (London: Taylor and Francis1996).

45

C. Crook“The campus experience of networked learning,” in Networked learning: Perspectives and issuesed. C. Steeples and C. Jones (Dordrecht: Springer2002) 121.

47

T. Moja and Cloete N.“Higher Education: Vanishing Borders and New Boundaries in the Information Society,” in Challenges of Globalisation—South African Debates with Manuel Castells (Cape Town: Maskew Miller Longman2001) 247.

48

M. Hall“Education and the Margins of the Network Society,” in South African Debates with Castellsed. J Muller N. Cloete N. and S. Badat (Cape Town: Maskew Miller Longman 2001).

50

N.J. Entwistle“Motivating and Approaches to Learning: Motivating and Conceptions of Teaching,” in Motivating Studentsed. S. Brown S. Armstrong and G. Thompson (London: Kogan Page 1998).

51

M. Castells“Information technology and global development,” in Challenges of globalisation: South African debates with Manuel Castellsed. J. Muller N. Cloete and S. Badat. (Cape Town: Maskew Miller/Longman 2001).

54

D.F. Noble“Rehearsal for Revolution,” in The Virtual University Gazetteed. K. Robins and F. Webster (Oxford: Oxford University Press 2002).

56

F. Marton and Saljo R.“Approaches to Learning,” in The Experience of Learninged. Marton F. Hounsell D. and Entwistle N. (Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press 1984).

57

K. Seltzer and Bentley T.The creative age: knowledge and skills for the new economy (London: Demos1999).

58

P. Brown Green A. and Lauder H.High skills: Globalisation competitiveness and skill (Oxford: Oxford University Press2001).

59

See for example P. LinehanSt John’s College Cambridge: a History (Woodbridge: The Boydell Press2011).

60

J.B. Ford Joseph M. and Joseph B.“Importance-performance analysis as a strategic tool for service marketers: The case of service quality perceptions of business students in New Zealand and the USA,” Journal of Services Marketing 13 no. 2 (1999): 171-186. P. Kotler Strategic marketing for educational institutions (Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall 1995).

64

W. ShumarCollege for sale: A critique of the commodification of higher education (London: Falmer Press1997).

69

C.K. Prahalad and Ramaswamy V.“The co-creation connection,” Strategy and Business 27 no. 2 (2002): 51-60. C.K. Prahalad and Ramaswamy V. The future of competition: Co-creating unique value with customers (Boston: Harvard Business School 2004).

71

See also C. Grönroos“Adopting a service logic for marketing,” Marketing Theory 6 no. 3 (2006): 317-334.

72

N.J. ThriftKnowing capitalism (London: Sage2005).

73

C. LeadbeaterPersonalization: how can we put the learner at the heart of the education system? (London: DfES2004). C. Leadbeater The shape of things to come: personalized learning through collaboration (London: DfES 2005).

74

D. HargreavesPersonalising learning—2: student voice and assessment for learning (London: Specialist Schools Trust2004).

77

J. MezirowTransformative dimensions of adult learning (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass1991).

78

I.C.L. Ng and Forbes J.“Education as Service: The understanding of university experience through the service logic,” Journal of Marketing for Higher Education 19 (2009): 38-64.

79

C. Lambert Parker A. and Neary M.“Teaching entrepreneurialism and critical pedagogy: Reinventing the higher education curriculum,” Teaching in Higher Education 12 (2007): 534.

80

BISHigher ambitions: the future of universities in a knowledge economy (London: Department for Business, Innovation and Skills2009).

81

R. Moore and Muller J.“The discourse of ‘voice’ and the problem of knowledge and identity in the sociology of education,” British Journal of Sociology of Education 20 no. 2 (1999): 189-206. Cited in M. Young “Rescuing the sociology of educational knowledge from the extremes of voice discourse: towards a new theoretical basis for the sociology of the curriculum” British Journal of Sociology of Education 21 no. 4 (2000): 530.

82

M. YoungBringing knowledge back in: From social constructivism to social realism in the sociology of education (London: Routledge2008).

83

M. Young and Muller J.“Disciplines, skills and the university,” Higher Education 66 no. 1 (2013) http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10734-013-9646-4#. (In press)

85

T. Lemke“The birth of bio-politics: Michael Foucault’s lectures at the College de France on neo-liberal governmentality,” Economy and Society 30 no. 2 (2001): 201.

86

U. Gustafsson and Driver S.“Parents power and public participation: Sure Start, an experiment in New Labour governance,” Social Policy and Administration 39 no. 5 (2005): 529.

87

P. Kelly“Youth at risk: processes of individualisation and responsibilisation in the risk society,” Discourse 22 no. 1 (2001): 30.

90

D. Sabri“What’s wrong with ‘the student experience’?” Discourse 32 no. 5 (2011): 657-667.

92

A. McClaran“Developing the New Higher Education Review,” in New Arrangements for Quality Assurance in Higher Educationed. Higher Education Policy Institute (Oxford: HEPI2013) 1.

94

R. Brown“Risk-Based Quality Assusrance: the risks,” in New Arrangements for Quality Assurance in Higher Educationed. Higher Education Policy Institute (Oxford: HEPI 2013).

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