Creativity in Chinese Schools

Perspectival Frames of Paradox and Possibility

in International Journal of Chinese Education
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Is creativity occurring in China’s primary and secondary schools? The thesis undergirding this article is that creativity is a paradox and possibility within this test-centric culture. Discussion is of the literature on creativity from an international perspective, with support from an original pilot study. The Chinese schools visited arose out of an inquiry into crucial issues in basic education involving high-stakes accountability and effects on the creativity and innovation of children and youth. Pursuing knowledge in action, the u.s. Fulbright Scholar used observation, conversation, and interviews to explore creative processes in five rural and urban preK-12 schools within Southwest China. A teacher training institute confirmed that creative learning transpires within some of the primary schools in the region. Analyses of the data collected suggest the potential for creativity in schooling to co-exist with external accountability. These emergent results offer a lens for understanding intriguing developments of schooling in Chinese education.

Creativity in Chinese Schools

Perspectival Frames of Paradox and Possibility

in International Journal of Chinese Education

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References

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1

Mihaly CsikszentmihalyiCreativity: The Psychology of Discovery and Invention (London: HarperPerennial1996).

3

Evan OsnosAge of Ambition: Chasing Fortune Truth and Faith in the New China (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux2014).

4

Michael D. Mumford“Where Have We Been, Where Are We Going? Taking Stock in Creativity Research.” Creativity Research Journal 15 (2003): 107-120.

5

Ken RobinsonCreative Schools: The Grassroots Revolution That’s Transforming Education (New York: Viking2015).

6

Elliot W. Eisner“What does it mean to say that a school is doing well?” in The Curriculum Studies Readered. David J. Flinders and Stephen J. Thornton second edition 297-305 (New York: Routledge 2001/2004).

7

Ken RobinsonCreative Schools: The Grassroots Revolution That’s Transforming Education (New York: Viking2015).

8

Mihaly CsikszentmihalyiCreativity: The Psychology of Discovery and Invention (London: HarperPerennial1996).

10

Stephen J. BallGlobal Education Inc.: New Policy Networks and the Neo-liberal Imaginary (London: Routledge2012).

12

Evan OsnosAge of Ambition: Chasing Fortune Truth and Faith in the New China (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux2014).

14

Henan Cheng“Inequality in Basic Education in China: A Comprehensive Review.” International Journal of Educational Policies 3 no.2 (2009): 81-106.

15

Elliot W. Eisner“What does it mean to say that a school is doing well?,” in The Curriculum Studies Readered. David J. Flinders and Stephen J. Thornton second edition (New York: Routledge 2001/2004). p. 300.

16

John DeweyArt as Experience (New York: Perigee Books1934).

17

Elliot W. Eisner“What does it mean to say that a school is doing well?,” in The Curriculum Studies Readered. David J. Flinders and Stephen J. Thornton second edition (New York: Routledge 2001/2004) 300.

18

Janet Draper“Hong Kong: Professional preparation and development of teachers in a market economy,” in Teacher Education Around the World: Changing Policies and Practicesed. Linda Darling-Hammond and Ann Lieberman (New York: Routledge2012) 81-97.

20

Evan OsnosAge of Ambition: Chasing Fortune Truth and Faith in the New China (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux2014).

21

Janet Draper“Hong Kong: Professional preparation and development of teachers in a market economy,” in Teacher Education Around the World: Changing Policies and Practicesed. Linda Darling-Hammond and Ann Lieberman (New York: Routledge2012) 81-97.

24

Jesse HagopianMore Than a Score: The New Uprising Against High-stakes Testing (Chicago: Haymarket2014).

25

Audrey L. Amrein and David C. Berliner“The Effects of High-stakes Testing on Student Motivation and Learning.” Educational Leadership60 no. 5 (2003): 32-38.

26

Wayne Au“Teaching Under the New Taylorism: High-stakes Testing and the Standardization of the 21st Century Curriculum.” Journal of Curriculum Studies43 no. 1 (2011): 25-45.

27

Carol A. MullenCreativity and Education in China: Paradox and Possibilities for an Era of Accountability (New York: Routledge2017).

29

Robert Kirkpatrick and Yuebing Zang“The Negative Influences of Exam-Oriented Education on Chinese High School Students: Backwash from Classroom to Child,” Language Testing in Asia1 no. 3 (2011): 36.

32

Pingyuan Cheng“National survey on suicide problems of primary and secondary school students in 2013,” in Annual Report on China’s Educationed. Yang Dongping (Beijing, China: Social Sciences Academic Press2014) 175-190.

33

Robert Kirkpatrick and Yuebing Zang“The Negative Influences of Exam-Oriented Education on Chinese High School Students: Backwash from Classroom to Child,” Language Testing in Asia1 no. 3 (2011): 36.

36

Evan OsnosAge of Ambition: Chasing Fortune Truth and Faith in the New China (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux2014).

37

Martin K. Dimitrov“Understanding communist collapse and resilience,” in Why Communism Did Not Collapse: Understanding Authoritarian Regime Resilience in Asia and Europeed. Martin K. Dimitrov (New York: Cambridge University Press2013) 3-39.

38

Henan Cheng“Inequality in Basic Education in China: A Comprehensive Review,” International Journal of Educational Policies 3 no. 2 (2009): 81-106.

40

Mandy Hollands Ish“Creativity and Imagination in Schools: A Reflection on Practice,” LEARNing Landscapes 9 (2) (2016): 302.

42

Janet Draper“Hong Kong: Professional preparation and development of teachers in a market economy,” in Teacher Education Around the World: Changing Policies and Practicesed. Linda Darling-Hammond and Ann Lieberman (New York: Routledge2012) 81-97.

45

Svein Sjøberg“OECD, PISA, and globalization: The influence of the international assessment regime,” in Education Policy Perils: Tackling the Tough Issuesed. Christopher H. Tienken and Carol A. Mullen (New York: Routledge2016) 102-133. Tony Wagner Creating Innovators: The Making of Young People Who Will Change the World (New York: Scribner 2012).

46

Wayne Au“Teaching Under the New Taylorism: High-stakes Testing and the Standardization of the 21st Century Curriculum,” Journal of Curriculum Studies 43 no. 1 (2011): 25-45.

48

Wayne Au“Teaching Under the New Taylorism: High-stakes Testing and the Standardization of the 21st Century Curriculum,” Journal of Curriculum Studies 43 no. 1 (2011): 25-45. Another source to consult is Regina M. Abrami William C. Kirby and F. Warren McFarlan “Why China Can’t Innovate.” Harvard Business Review 92 no. 3 (2014): 107-111. Accessed May 10 2017 from https://hbr.org/2014/03/why-china-cant-innovate.

49

Audrey L. Amrein and David C. Berliner“The Effects of High-stakes Testing on Student Motivation and Learning,” Educational Leadership 60 no. 5 (2003): 32-38.

51

Wayne Au“Teaching Under the New Taylorism: High-stakes Testing and the Standardization of the 21st Century Curriculum,” Journal of Curriculum Studies 43 no. 1 (2011): 25-45.

52

Carol A. MullenCreativity and Education in China: Paradox and Possibilities for an Era of Accountability (New York: Routledge2017).

53

Ken RobinsonCreative Schools: The Grassroots Revolution That’s Transforming Education (New York: Viking2015).

54

James C. Kaufman and Ronald A. Beghetto“Beyond Big and Little: The Four C Model of Creativity,” Review of General Psychology 13 no. 1 (2009): 1-12.

55

Svein Sjøberg“OECD, PISA, and globalization: The influence of the international assessment regime,” in Education Policy Perils: Tackling the Tough Issuesed. Christopher H. Tienken and Carol A. Mullen (New York: Routledge2016) 102-133.

56

Pingyuan Cheng“National survey on suicide problems of primary and secondary school students in 2013,” in Annual Report on China’s Educationed. Yang Dongping (Beijing, China: Social Sciences Academic Press2014) 175-190.

57

James C. Kaufman and Ronald A. Beghetto“Beyond Big and Little: The Four C Model of Creativity,” Review of General Psychology13 no. 1 (2009): 1-12.

58

Carol A. MullenCreativity and Education in China: Paradox and Possibilities for an Era of Accountability (New York: Routledge2017). See also Ken Robinson Creative Schools: The Grassroots Revolution That’s Transforming Education (New York: Viking 2015).

59

Ken RobinsonCreative Schools: The Grassroots Revolution That’s Transforming Education (New York: Viking2015).

60

Carol A. MullenCreativity and Education in China: Paradox and Possibilities for an Era of Accountability (New York: Routledge2017). See also Ken Robinson Creative Schools: The Grassroots Revolution That’s Transforming Education (New York: Viking 2015).

61

Mihaly CsikszentmihalyiCreativity: The Psychology of Discovery and Invention (London: HarperPerennial1996).

62

Janet Draper“Hong Kong: Professional preparation and development of teachers in a market economy,” in Teacher Education Around the World: Changing Policies and Practicesed. Linda Darling-Hammond and Ann Lieberman (New York: Routledge2012) 81-97.

64

Robert J. Sternberg“Introduction,” in The International Handbook of Creativityed. James C. Kaufman and Robert J. Sternberg (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press2006) 1-9.

65

Carol A. MullenCreativity and Education in China: Paradox and Possibilities for an Era of Accountability (New York: Routledge2017).

66

Carol A. MullenCreativity and Education in China: Paradox and Possibilities for an Era of Accountability (New York: Routledge2017). For additional support consult Yhao Zhao Who’s Afraid of the Big Bad Dragon? (Thousand Oaks ca: Jossey-Bass 2014).

69

Kathy Charmaz“Grounded theory in the 21st century: Applications for advancing social justice studies,” in The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Researched. Norman K. Denzin and Yvonne S. Lincoln third edition (Thousand Oaks ca: Sage 2015) 507-535.

70

Carol A. MullenCreativity and Education in China: Paradox and Possibilities for an Era of Accountability (New York: Routledge2017). For further discussion see Yhao Zhao Who’s Afraid of the Big Bad Dragon? (Thousand Oaks ca: Jossey-Bass 2014).

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