Efficacy of Grade Retention in Macao

Evidence from pisa 2009

in International Journal of Chinese Education
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Grade retention is widely used in Macao at the elementary and secondary levels. While many teachers and students believe retention gives low-performing students the opportunity to catch up, there is little empirical evidence to support such a claim. Using Programme in International Student Assessment 2009 (pisa, 2009) data, we examine the effect of grade retention on students’ learning time, learning strategy, metacognition, and academic achievement. We also analyze the influence of school policies to determine the net effect of retention. Our findings suggest that, contrary to conventional thinking, grade retention has a highly negative effect on the above factors. Students who repeated a grade did not benefit from this second chance, but rather were substantially held back in their learning trajectory. We suggest that schools in Macao shift their focus to designing programs that will help students with greater needs, rather than focusing exclusively on identifying such students.

Efficacy of Grade Retention in Macao

Evidence from pisa 2009

in International Journal of Chinese Education

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References

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  • 3

    Yi-Lee Wong“Why are In-Grade Retention Rates So High in Macao?” Current Issues in Education 16 no. 3 (2013).

  • 4

    Ibid.; Yi-Lee Wong and Yisu Zhou“The Operation of Grade Retention and Education Inequality: Who Gets Retained in Macao and Why,” Asian Pacific Journal of Education37(2):150-162.

  • 6

    John Goodlad and Robert H. AndersonThe Nongraded Elementary School (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World1963).

  • 7

    Jay Greene and Marcus Winters“Revisiting Grade Retention: An Evaluation of Florida’s Test-Based Promotion Policy,” Education Finance and Policy 2 no. 4 (September 2007): 319-340; Jay Greene and Marcus A. Winters “The Effects of Exemptions to Florida’s Test-Based Promotion Policy: Who is Retained? Who Benefits Academically?” Economics of Education Review 28 no. 1 (2009): 135-142.

  • 8

    Elizabeth Carlson et al.“Early Environmental Support and Elementary School Adjustment as Predictors of School Adjustment in Middle Adolescence,” Journal of Adolescent Research 14 no. 1 (1999): 72-94.

  • 9

    Shane Jimerson and Phillip Ferguson“A Longitudinal Study of Grade Retention: Academic and Behavioral Outcomes of Retained Students through Adolescence,” School Psychology Quarterly 22 no. 3 (2007): 314-339; Robert K. Ream and Russell W. Rumberger “Student Engagement Peer Social Capital and School Dropout among Mexican American and non-Latino White Students” Sociology of Education 81 no. 2 (2008):109-139; Elizabeth Stearns et al. “Staying back and Dropping out: The Relationship between Grade Retention and School Dropout” Sociology of Education 80 no. 3 (2007): 210-240.

  • 10

    Shane Jimerson et al.“A Prospective, Longitudinal Study of the Correlates and Consequences of Early Grade Retention,” Journal of School Psychology 35 no.1 (1997): 3-25; Benjamin Silberglitt et al. “Examining the Effects of Grade Retention on Student Reading Performance: A Longitudinal Study” Journal of School Psychology 44 no. 4 (September 2006): 255-270.

  • 11

    Shane Jimerson“On the Failure of Failure: Examining the Association between Early Grade Retention and Education and Employment Outcomes during Late Adolescence,” Journal of School Psychology 37 no. 3 (1999): 243-272; Shane Jimerson et al. “Beyond Grade Retention and Social Promotion: Promoting the Social and Academic Competence of Students” Psychology in Schools 43 no. 1 (2006): 85-97; Melissa Roderick “Grade Retention and School Dropout: Investigating the Association” American Educational Research Journal 31 no. 4 (January 1994): 729-759.

  • 12

    Thomas C. Holmes“Grade-Level Retention Effects: A Meta-Analysis of Research Studies.” In Flunking Grades: Research and Policies on Retentioned. L. A. Shepard and M. L. Smith (The Falmer Press 1989); Shane Jimerson “A Synthesis of Grade Retention Research: Looking Backward and Moving Forward” The California School Psychologist 6 no. 1 (2001b): 47-59; Shane Jimerson and Amber M. Kaufman “Reading Writing and Retention: A Primer on Grade Retention Research” Reading Teacher 56 no. 7 (2003): 622-635.

  • 14

    Benjamin Silberglitt et al.“Examining the Effects,” Journal of School Psychology 44 no. 4 (2006) 255-270; Mary Lee Smith and Lorrie A. Shepard “Kindergarten Readiness and Retention: A Qualitative Study of Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices” American Educational Research Journal 25 no. 3 (1988): 307-333.

  • 15

    Jay Greene and Marcus A. Winters“The Effects of Exemptions to Florida’s Test-Based Promotion Policy: Who is Retained? Who Benefits Academically?” Economics of Education Review 28 no. 1 (2009): 135-142; Melissa Roderick and Jenny Nagaoka “Retention under Chicago’s High-Stakes Testing Program: Helpful Harmful or Harmless?” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 27 no. 4 (2005): 309-340.

  • 16

    Shane Jimerson“Meta-Analysis of Grade Retention Research: Implications for Practice in the 21st Century,” School Psychology Review 30 no. 3 (2001a): 420-437; Shane Jimerson “A Synthesis of Grade Retention Research: Looking Backward and Moving Forward” The California School Psychologist 6 no. 1 (2001b): 47-59.

  • 19

    Yi-Lee Wong“Why are In-Grade Retention Rates so High in Macao?” Current Issues in Education 16 no. 3 (2013) accessed June 7 2017 http://cie.asu.edu/ojs/index.php/cieatasu/article/view/1240.

  • 26

    Leslie Rutkowski et al.“International Large-Scale Assessment Data: Issues in Secondary Analysis and Reporting,” Educational Researcher 39 no. 2 (March 2010): 142-151; Matthias von Davier Eugenio Gonzalez and Robert J. Mislevy “What are Plausible Values and Why are they Useful?” in Issues and Methodologies in Large-scale Assessments (Vol. 2) ed. by Matthias von Davier and Dirk Hastedt (Princeton nj: iea-ets Research Institute 2009) 9-36.

  • 28

    Yi-Lee Wong and Yisu Zhou“The Operation of Grade Retention and Education Inequality: Who Gets Retained in Macao and Why,” Asian Pacific Journal of Education37(2):150-162.

  • 29

    Guanglei Hong and Stephen W. Raudenbush“Effects of Kindergarten Retention Policy on Children’s Cognitive Growth in Reading and Mathematics,” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 27 no. 3 (January 2005): 205-224.

  • 30

    Ibid. p. 152.

  • 33

    Suet-Ling Pong“Grade Level and Achievement of Immigrants’ Children: Academic Redshirting in Hong Kong,” Educational Research and Evaluation 15 no. 4 (2009): 405-425.

  • 36

    Yi-Lee Wong“Why are In-Grade Retention Rates so High in Macao?” Current Issues in Education 16 no. 3 (2013) accessed June 7 2017 http://cie.asu.edu/ojs/index.php/cieatasu/article/view/1240; Yi-Lee Wong and Yisu Zhou. “The Operation of Grade Retention and Education Inequality: Who Gets Retained in Macao and Why.” Asian Pacific Journal of Education 37(2):150-162.

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