In: Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Zoology, Tel Aviv University
  • 2 Department of Zoology, Tel Aviv University

The dimensions of an adult insect's body parts reflect, in part, the conditions it was exposed to during the larval stages--be it nutrition, temperature, density, or other environmental constraints. Morphological differences between two genetically-similar adult morphs may reflect differences in their larval habitat. The life cycle of gall-inducing aphids (Homoptera: Pemphigidae: Fordinae) includes two winged (alate) adult morphs. The fall migrants develop in the closed galls on Pistacia and emerge as adults at the end of summer. The sexuparae develop on the roots of grasses in winter--without forming galls--and emerge as adults in the spring. The subfamily Fordinae is divided taxonomically into two tribes, Baizongiini and Fordini, which share the same life cycle. We measured 25 morphological characters on each of 156 fall migrants and 115 sexuparae, belonging to 11 species of Fordinae. We used cluster analysis to assess the morphological similarity of the species and morphs to each other. We employed conventional statistical techniques to compare the two morphs of each species, in light of the difference in larval environment of the morphs. We found, unexpectedly, that the two tribes within the Fordinae show contrasting levels of environmental control of morphology. In the Baizongiini, the sexuparae and the fall migrants of each species clustered together, implying similar morphology despite the difference in larval environment. This can be due to high heritability of the morphological characters. Not so in the Fordini: The sexuparae of all species clustered together and formed a separate cluster from the fall migrants. The sexuparae of different species are, most probably, genetically different, but experience a similar larval environment that is ecologically different from the gall environment of the fall migrants. The larval environment seems to have an overriding effect over any other factors--genetic or otherwise--controlling the expression of adult morphological characters in this tribe.

  • Wool, D., Manheim, O., Burstein, M., Levi, T. 1994. Dynamics of re-migration of sexuparae to their primary hosts in the gall-forming Fordinae (Homoptera: Aphidoidea: Pemphigidae). Eur. J. Entomol. 91: 103-108.

  • Wool, D., Manheim, O., Inbar, M. 1997. Return flight of sexuparae of galling aphids to their primary host trees: implications for differential herbivory and gall (Aphidoidea: Pemphigidae: Fordinae) abundance. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 90: 341-350.

  • Zw�lfer, H. 1958. Zur Systematik, Biologie und Oekologie unterirdisch lebender Aphiden (Homoptera, Aphidoidea) (Anoeciinae, Tetraneurini, Pemphigini und Fordinae). Z. Ang. Ent. 43: 1-52.

  • Davatchi, G.A. 1958. Etude biologique de la faune entomologique des Pistacia sauvages et cultives. Rev. Path. Veg. Entomol. Agr. Fr. 37: 3-166.

  • Dixon, A.F.G., Logan, M. 1973. Leaf size and availability of space to the sycamore aphid Drepanosiphum platanoides. Oikos 24: 58-63.

  • Falconer, D.S. 1989. Introduction to quantitative genetics. Longman, New York.

  • Foottit, R.G., Mackauer, M. 1990. Morphometric variation within and between populations of the pine aphid Cinara nigra (Wilson) (Homoptera: Aphidoidea: Lachnidae) in western North America. Can. J. Zool. 68: 1410-1419.

  • Halperin, J., Binazzi, A., Swirski, E. 1988. Aphids of forest and ornamental trees and shrubs of Israel. Isr. J. Entomol. 22: 27-44.

  • Harpaz, I. 1953. Ecology, phenology and taxonomy of the aphids living on graminaceous plants in Israel. PhD dissertation, Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (in Hebrew, English summary).

  • Hille Ris Lambers, D. 1966. Polymorphism in Aphididae. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 11: 47-78.

  • Inbar, M., Wool, D. 1995. Phloem-feeding specialists sharing a host tree: resource partitioning minimizes interference competition among galling aphid species. Oikos 73: 109-119.

  • Judge, F.D. 1968. Polymorphism in a subterranean aphid, Pemphigus bursarius. I. factors affecting the development of sexuparae. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am. 61: 819-827.

  • Kindlmann, P., Dixon, A.F.G. 1989. Developmental constraints in the evolution of reproductive strategies: telescoping of generations in parthenogenetic aphids. Funct. Ecol. 3: 531-537.

  • Koach, J., Wool, D. 1977. Geographic distribution and host specificity of gall-forming aphids (Homoptera, Fordinae) on Pistacia trees in Israel. Marcellia 40: 207-216.

  • Komatsu, D., Akimoto, S. 1995. Genetic differentiation as a result of adaptation to the phenolo-gies of individual host trees in the galling aphid Kaltenbachiella japonica. Ecol. Entomol. 20: 33-42.

  • Lees, A.D. 1966. The control of polymorphism in aphids. Adv. Insect Physiol. 3: 207-277.

  • Manheim, O. 1996. Similarity and phylogenetic relations among gall forming aphid species (Fordinae: Homoptera: Aphidoidea) estimated by multivariate analysis of morphological characters. PhD dissertation, Tel Aviv Univ. (in Hebrew, English summary).

  • Miller, G.L., Stoetzel, M.B., Lopez, R., Potter, D.A. 2002. Geoica setulosa (Passerini) (Hemiptera: Aphididae): new distribution records for North America. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 104: 160-163.

  • Abbot, P., Withgott, J.H., Moran, N.A. 2001. Genetic conflict and conditional altruism in social aphid colonies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98: 12068-12071.

  • Blackman, R.L., Eastop, V.F. 1984. Aphids on the world's crops. Wiley Interscience, Chichester, UK. 466 pp.

  • Blackman, R.L., Eastop, V.F. 1994. Aphids on the world's trees: an identification and information guide. CAB International, London, 986 pp.

  • Bodenheimer, F.S., Swirski,E. 1957. The Aphidoidea of the Middle East. Weizmann Science Press, Jerusalem. 386 pp.

  • Brown, P.A., Blackman, R.L. 1994. Morphometric variation in the Geoica utricularia (Homoptera, Aphididae) species group on Pistacia (Anacardiaceae), with descriptions of new species and a key to emigrant alatae. Syst. Entomol. 19: 119-132.

  • Cohen, A.C., Henneberry, T.J., Chu, C.C. 1996. Geometric relationships between whitefly feeding behavior and vascular bundle arrangements. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 78: 135-142.

  • Moran, N.A. 1992. The evolutionary maintenance of alternative phenotypes. Am. Nat. 139: 971- 989.

  • Moran, N.A., Seminoff, J., Johnstone, L. 1993. Induction of winged sexuparae in root-inhabiting colonies of the aphid Pemphigus betae. Physiol. Entomol. 18: 296-302.

  • Roberti, D. 1939. Contributi alla conoscenza degli Afidi d'Italia. III. I. Fordini. Boll. Lab. Zool. Agric. Portici 31: 34-104.

  • Roberti, D. 1983. Note su alcune specie di Fordinae (Homoptera--Aphidoidea--Eriosomatidae). Entomologica (Bary) 18: 151-214.

  • Rohlf, F.J. 1992. NTSYS-PC: numerical taxonomy analysis system Version 2.0. Exeter Software, New York.

  • Rohlf, F.J. 1999. BIOMstat: statistical software for biologists. Exeter Software, New York.

  • Shaposhnikov, G.C. 1985. The main features of the evolution of aphids. In: Evolution and systematics of aphids. Proc. Int. Aphidological Symposium, Jablona, 1981. Polska Akademia Nauk, Wroclaw, pp. 19-99.

  • Sneath, P.H.A., Sokal, R.R. 1973. Numerical taxonomy. Freeman, San Francisco, 573 pp.

  • Sokal, R.R. 1952. Variation in a local population of Pemphigus. Evolution 6: 296-315.

  • Sokal, R.R., Rohlf, F.J. 1995. Biometry. 3rd ed. Freeman, New York, 887 pp.

  • Sokal, R.R., Sneath, P.H.A. 1963. Principles of numerical taxonomy. Freeman, San Francisco, 359 pp.

  • Sokal, R.R., Unnasch, R.S., Thomson, B.A. 1991. Pemphigus revisited: Changes in geographic variation but constancy in variability and covariation. Evolution 45: 1585-1605.

  • Stadler, B. 1992. Physiological responses of Uroleucon jaceae (L.) to seasonal changes in the quality of its host plant, Centaurea jacea L.: multilevel control of adaptations to the life cycle of its host. Oecologia 91: 273-280.

  • Swirski, E., Amitai, S. 1999. Annotated list of aphids (Aphidoidea) in Israel. Isr. J. Entomol. 33: 1-121.

  • Walters, K.F.A., Dixon, A.F.G. 1983. Migratory urge and reproductive investment in aphids: variation within clones. Oecologia 58: 70-75.

  • Wool, D. 1977. Genetic and environmental components of morphological variation in gall-forming aphids (Homoptera, Aphididae, Fordinae) in relation to climate. J. Anim. Ecol. 46: 875-889.

  • Wool, D. 1984. Gall forming aphids. In: Ananthakrishnan, T.N., ed. Biology of gall insects. Oxford & IBH, Oxford, pp. 11-58.

  • Wool, D. 1995. Aphid-induced galls on Pistacia in the natural Mediterranean forest of Israel: which, where, and how many? Isr. J. Zool. 41: 591-600.

  • Wool, D. 1998. Gall-forming aphids on Pistacia: a first look at the subterranean part of their life cycle. In: Csoka, G., Mattson, W.J., Stone, G.N., Price, P.W., eds. The biology of gall inducing arthropods. USDA Forest Service, St. Paul, Minnesota, pp. 127-130.

  • Wool, D. 2003. Gall-inducing aphids: biology, ecology, and evolution. In: Raman, A., Schaefer, C.W., Withers, T.M., eds. Biology, ecology and evolution of gall-inducing arthropods. Science Publishers, Enfield, New Hampshire, in press.

  • Wool, D. 2004. Galling aphids: specialization, biological complexity, and variation. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 49: 175-192.

  • Wool, D., Koach, J. 1976. Morphological variation of the gall-forming aphid, Geoica utricularia (Homoptera) in relation to envirommental variation. In: Karlin, S., Nevo, E., eds. Population genetics and ecology. Academic Press, New York, pp. 239-272.

  • Wool, D., Manheim, O. 1983. The effects of environment subdivision on morphological variation in the "cauliflower" galls of the aphid Slavum wertheimae (Homoptera, Aphididae, Fordinae). Isr. J. Entomol. 17: 95-104.

  • Wool, D., Manheim, O. 1992. Multivariate study of temporal variation in morphology of a gall-forming aphid. In: Sorensen, J., Foottit, R., eds. Ordination in the study of morphology, evolution and systematics of insects: applications and quantitative genetic rationals. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 179-192.

  • Wool, D., Hales, D.F. 1997. Phenotypic plasticity in Australian cotton aphid (Homoptera, Aphididae): host plant effects on morphological variation. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 90: 316- 328.

  • Wool, D., Ben Zvi, O. 1998. Population ecology and clone dynamics of the galling aphid Geoica wertheimae (Sternorrhyncha, Pemphigidae : Fordinae). Eur. J. Entomol. 95: 509-518.

  • Wool, D., Sulami, Z. 2001. Induction of alate sexuparae in root-cage colonies, and female-biased sex ratios in the galling aphid, Aploneura lentisci. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 101: 299-303.

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 15 7 0
Full Text Views 7 1 0
PDF Downloads 3 0 0