Defensive (anti-herbivory) Batesian mimicry in plants

in Israel Journal of Plant Sciences
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?

Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.

Help

 

Have Institutional Access?

Login with your institution. Any other coaching guidance?

Connect

Several types of defensive Batesian mimicry seem to be much more common in plants than was historically and is currently considered. It is based either on visual aspects (shape, coloration, and even movement), on odors, and on combinations of both these sensing modalities. Various characters that seem to function as defensive Batesian mimicry, may also simultaneously take part in pollination, physiological functions, or in other defensive mechanisms. The defended models for the visual Batesian mimics in plants belong to several categories: (1) spiny, thorny and prickly plant species, (2) mechanically or chemically defended parts of the same individual plant, or other members of the same species (auto mimicry), (3) colorful and chemically defended plants, (4) dangerous animals (aggressive, toxic), (5) fungal attacks, (6) animal action and animal damage cues, and (7) oozing defensive white latex. Olfactory defended models include: (1) toxic plants, (2) animal alarm pheromones, and (3) animal carrion and feces odors. Many more descriptive, genetic, phylogenetic and experimental studies have to be done in order to better understand the role of defensive Batesian mimicry in plant biology.

Sections
References
  • Abraham Y. Elbaum R. (2013). Hygroscopic movements in Geraniaceae: the structural variations that are responsible for coiling or bending. New Phytol. 199: 584594.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Agrawal A.A. Konno K. (2009). Latex: a model for understanding mechanisms, ecology, and evolution of plant defense against herbivory. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 40: 311331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Allen J.A. Cooper J.M. (1985). Crypsis and masquerade. J. Biol. Education. 19: 268270.

  • Archetti M. Döring T.F. Hagen S.B. Hughes N.M. Leather S.R. Lee D.W. Lev-Yadun S. Manetas Y. Ougham H.J. Schaberg P.G. Thomas H. (2009). Unravelling the evolution of autumn colours: an interdisciplinary approach. Trends Ecol. Evol. 24: 166173.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Augner M. Bernays E.A. (1998). Plant defence signals and Batesian mimicry. Evol. Ecol. 12:667679.

  • Avery M.L. (1985). Application of mimicry theory to bird damage control. J. Wildl. Manage. 49: 11161121.

  • Aviezer I. Lev-Yadun S. (2015). Pod and seed defensive coloration (camouflage and mimicry) in the genus Pisum . Isr. J. Plant Sci. 62: 3951.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barlow B.A. Wiens D. (1977). Host-parasite resemblance in Australian mistletoes: the case for cryptic mimicry. Evolution. 31: 6984.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • H.W Bates . (1862). Contributions to an insect fauna of the Amazon Valley. Lepidoptera: Heliconidae. Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond . XXIII: 495566.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Beale M.H. Birkett M.A. Bruce T.J.A. Chamberlain K. Field L.M. Huttly A.K. Martin J.L. Parker R. Phillips A.L. Pickett J.A. Prosser I.M. Shewry P.R. Smart L.E. Wadhams L.J. Woodcock C.M. Zhang Y. (2006). Aphid alarm pheromone produced by transgenic plants affects aphid and parasitoid behavior. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA . 103: 1050910513.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Benson W.W. Brown K.S. Gilbert L.E. (1975). Coevolution of plants and herbivores: passion flower butterflies. Evolution. 29: 659680.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Borowicz V.A. (1988). Do vertebrates reject decaying fruit? An experimental test with Cornus amomum fruits. Oikos. 53: 7478.

  • Brower L.P. (1969). Ecological chemistry. Sci. Amer . 220(2): 2229.

  • Brown V.K. Lawton J.H. (1991). Herbivory and the evolution of leaf size and shape. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 333: 265272.

  • Buchholz R. Levey D.J. (1990). The evolutionary triad of microbes, fruits, and seed dispersers: an experiment in fruit choice by cedar waxwingsBombycilla cedrorum. Oikos . 59: 200204.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Caro T. (2005). Antipredator Defenses in Birds and Mammals. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

  • Cooper J. Gordon I.J. Pike A.W. (2000). Strategies for the avoidance of faeces by grazing sheep. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 69: 1533.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cott H.B. (1940). Adaptive Coloration in Animals. London: Methuen & Co.

  • Dafni A. (1984). Mimicry and deception in pollination. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 15: 259278.

  • Dawkins R. (1982). The Extended Phenotype. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • de Castro É.C.P. Zagrobelny M. Cardoso M.Z. Bak S. (2018). The arms race between heliconiine butterflies and Passiflora plants – new insights on an ancient subject. Biol. Rev. 93: 555573.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Detto C. (1905). Blütenbiologische Untersuchungen, I. Über die Bedeutung der Insektenähnlichkeit der Ophrysblute bebst bemerkungen über die Möhrenblütte bei Daucus carota . Flora . 94: 287329.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Diamond J. Bond A.B. (2013). Concealing Coloration in Animals. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

  • Dirzo R. (2002). Lying leaves. Science. 297: 1119.

  • Dussourd D.E. (1995). Entrapment of aphids and whiteflies in lettuce latex. Ecol. Popul. Biol. 88: 163172.

  • Edmunds M. (1974). Defence in Animals. A Survey of Anti-Predator Defences. Harlow: Longman Group.

  • Edmunds M. (2000). Why are there good and poor mimics? Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 70: 459466.

  • Eisner T. (1964). Catnip: Its Raison d’Être. Science. 146: 13181320.

  • Eisner T. Grant R.P. (1981). Toxicity, odor aversion, and “olfactory aposematism”. Science. 213: 476.

  • Eisner T. Eisner M. Siegler M. (2005). Secret Weapons. Defenses of Insects Spiders Scorpions and Other Many-Legged Creatures. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Endler J.A. (1981). An overview of the relationships between mimicry and crypsis. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 16: 2531.

  • Fadzly N. Jack C. Schaefer H.M. Burns K.C. (2009). Ontogenetic colour changes in an insular tree species: signalling to extinct browsing birds? New Phytol. 184: 495501.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Faegri K. Pijl L. van der. (1979). The Principles of Pollination Ecology. 3rd edn. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

  • Fahn A. (1979). Secretory Tissues in Plants. London: Academic Press.

  • Farmer E.E. (2014). Leaf Defence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Fankhauser R. Galeffi C. Suter W. (2008). Dung avoidance as a possible mechanism in competition between wild and domestic ungulates: two experiments with chamois Rupicapra rupicapra . Eur. J. Wildl. Res. 54: 8894.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Forbes P. (2009). Dazzled and Deceived: Mimicry and Camouflage. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

  • Gentry H.S. (1982). Agaves of Continental North America. Tucson, AR: University of Arizona Press.

  • Gibson R.W. Pickett J.A. (1983). Wild potato repels aphids by release of aphid alarm pheromone. Nature. 302: 608609.

  • Gilbert L.E. (1980). Ecological consequences of a coevolved mutualism between butterflies and plants. In: Gilbert L.E. Raven P.H. eds. Coevolution of Animals and Plants. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press pp. 210240.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gilbert L.E. (1982). The coevolution of a butterfly and a vine. Sci. Amer. 247(8): 102107.

  • Gittleman J.L. Harvey P.H. (1980). Why are distasteful prey not cryptic? Nature. 286: 149150.

  • Givnish T.J. (1987). Comparative studies of leaf form: assessing the relative roles of selective pressures and phylogenetic constraints. New Phytol. 106(S1): 131160.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Glinwood R. Pettersson J. (2000). Movement by mating females of a host alternating aphid: a response to leaf fall. Oikos. 90: 4349.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guilford T. (1994). "Go-slow" signalling and the problem of automimicry. J. Theor. Biol. 170: 311316.

  • Guilford T. Nicol C. Rothschild M. Moore B.P. (1987). The biological roles of pyrazines: evidence for a warning odour function. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 31: 113128.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Guthrie R.D. Petocz R.G. (1970). Weapon automimicry among animals. Amer. Nat. 104: 585588.

  • Halpern M. Raats D. Lev-Yadun S. (2007). Plant biological warfare: Thorns inject pathogenic bacteria into herbivores. Environ. Microbiol. 9: 584592.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Herrera C.M. (1982). Defense of ripe fruit from pests: Its significance in relation to plant-disperser interactions. Amer. Nat. 120: 218241.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Himanen S.J. Blande J.D. Klemola T. Pulkkinen J. Heijari J. Holopainen J.K. (2010). Birch (Betula spp.) leaves adsorb and re-release volatiles specific to neighbouring plants – a mechanism for associational herbivore resistance? New Phytol . 186: 722732.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hinton HE . (1973). Natural deception. In: Gregory R.L. Gombrich E.H. eds. Illusion in Nature and Art. London: Duckworth pp. 97159.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holopainen J.K. Blande J.D. (2013). Where do herbivore-induced plant volatiles go? Front. Plant Sci. 4: 185.

  • Humphreys R.K. Ruxton G.D. (2018). A review of thanatosis (death feigning) as an anti-predator behaviour. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 72: 22.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Inbar M. Izhaki I. Lupo I. Silanikove N. Glasser T. Gerchman Y. Perevolotsky A. Lev-Yadun S. (2010). Why do many galls have conspicuous colors? A new hypothesis. Arthropod-Plant Interact. 4: 16.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Janzen D.H. (1977). Why fruits rot, seeds mold, and meat spoils. Amer. Nat. 111: 691713.

  • Janzen D.H. (1986). Chihuahuan Desert nopaleras: Defaunated big mammal vegetation. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 17: 595636.

  • Jones C.G. Lawton J.H. (1991). Plant chemistry and insect species richness of British umbellifers. J. Anim. Ecol. 60: 767777.

  • Jürgens A. Shuttleworth A. (2016). Carrion and dung mimicry in plants. In: Benbow M.E. Tomberlin J.K. Tarone A.M. eds. Carrion Ecology Evolution and Their Applications. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press pp. 361386.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Karban R. (2007). Deciduous leaf drop reduces insect herbivory. Oecologia. 153: 8188.

  • Karban R. (2015). Plant Sensing & Communication. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

  • Karban R. Orrock J.L. Preisser E.L. Sih A. (2016). A comparison of plants and animals in their responses to risk of consumption. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 32: 18.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kaye H. Mackintosh N.J. Rothschild M. Moore B.P. (1989). Odour of pyrazine potentiates an association between environmental cues and unpalatable taste. Anim. Behav. 37: 563568.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Konno K. (2011). Plant latex and other exudates as plant defense systems: Roles of various defense chemicals and proteins contained therein. Phytochem. 72: 15101530.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lappalainen J. Helander M.L. Palokangas P. (1995). The performance of the autumnal moth is lower on trees infested by birch rust. Mycol. Res. 99: 994996.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Launchbaugh K.L. Provenza F.D. (1993). Can plants practice mimicry to avoid grazing by mammalian herbivores? Oikos. 66: 501504.

  • Lee D. (2007). Nature’s Palette. The Science of Plant Color. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

  • Lev-Yadun S. (2001). Aposematic (warning) coloration associated with thorns in higher plants. J. Theor. Biol. 210: 385388.

  • Lev-Yadun S. (2003a). Weapon (thorn) automimicry and mimicry of aposematic colorful thorns in plants. J. Theor. Biol. 244: 183188.

  • Lev-Yadun S. (2003b). Why do some thorny plants resemble green zebras? J. Theor. Biol. 244: 483489.

  • Lev-Yadun S. (2006a). Defensive coloration in plants: a review of current ideas about anti-herbivore coloration strategies. In: Teixeira da Silva J.A. ed. Floriculture Ornamental and Plant Biotechnology: Advances and Topical Issues . Vol. IV. London: Global Science Books pp. 292299.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lev-Yadun S. (2006b). Defensive functions of white coloration in coastal and dune plants. Isr. J. Plant. Sci. 54: 317325.

  • Lev-Yadun S. (2009a). Aposematic (warning) coloration in plants. In: Baluska F. ed. Plant-Environment Interactions. From Sensory Plant Biology to Active Plant Behavior. Berlin: Springer-Verlag pp. 167202.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lev-Yadun S. (2009b). Müllerian and Batesian mimicry rings of white-variegated aposematic spiny and thorny plants: a hypothesis. Isr. J. Plant Sci. 57: 107116.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lev-Yadun S. (2009c). Müllerian mimicry in aposematic spiny plants. Plant Signaling & Behav. 4: 482483.

  • Lev-Yadun S. (2009d). Ant mimicry by Passiflora flowers? Isr. J. Entomol. 39: 159163.

  • Lev-Yadun S. (2013a). Does chemical aposematic (warning) signaling occur between host plants and their potential parasitic plants? Plant Signaling & Behav. 8: e24907.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lev-Yadun S. (2013b). The enigmatic fast leaflet rotation in Desmodium motorium: butterfly mimicry for defense? Plant Signaling & Behav. 8: e24473.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lev-Yadun S. (2014a). Defensive masquerade by plants. Biol. J.. Linn Soc . 113: 11621166.

  • Lev-Yadun S. (2014b). Why is latex usually white and only sometimes yellow, orange or red? Simultaneous visual and chemical plant defense. Chemoecology. 24: 215218.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lev-Yadun S. (2014c). Do plants use visual carrion-based aposematism to deter herbivores? The Biochemist. 36(5): 3639.

  • Lev-Yadun S. (2015a). Gloger’s rule in plants: the species and ecosystem levels. Plant Signaling & Behav. 10: e1040968.

  • Lev-Yadun S. (2015b). The proposed anti-herbivory roles of white leaf variegation. Prog. Bot. 76: 241269.

  • Lev-Yadun S. (2015c). Partly transparent young legume pods: do they mimic caterpillars for defense and simultaneously enable better photosynthesis? Plant Signaling & Behav. 10: e1048941.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lev-Yadun S. (2016). Defensive (Anti-Herbivory) Coloration in Land Plants. Anti-Herbivory Plant Coloration and Morphology. Zug, Switzerland: Springer.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lev-Yadun S. (2017). Defensive animal and animal action mimicry by plants. Isr. J. Plant Sci. 64: 179209.

  • Lev-Yadun S. Gould K.S. (2007). What do red and yellow autumn leaves signal? Bot. Rev. 73: 279289.

  • Lev-Yadun S Gould K.S. (2009). Role of anthocyanins in plant defense. In: Gould K.S. Davies K.M. Winefield C. eds. Life’s Colorful Solutions: The Biosynthesis Functions and Applications of Anthocyanins. Berlin: Springer-Verlag pp. 2148.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lev-Yadun S. Gutman M. (2013). Carrion odor and cattle grazing: evidence for plant defense by carrion odor. Communicative and Integrative Biol. 6: e26111.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lev-Yadun S Halpern M . (2007). Ergot (Claviceps purpurea) – An aposematic fungus. Symbiosis J. 43: 105108.

  • Lev-Yadun S. Inbar M. (2002). Defensive ant, aphid and caterpillar mimicry in plants. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 77: 393398.

  • Lev-Yadun S. Ne’eman G. (2012). Does bee or wasp mimicry by orchid flowers also deter herbivores? Arthropod-Plant Interact. 6: 327332.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lev-Yadun S. Niemelä P. (2017). Leaf pseudo-variegation: definition, common types, and probably the defended models for real defensive leaf variegation mimicking them? Flora. 226: 8288.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lev-Yadun S. Ne’eman G. Izhaki I. (2009). Unripe red fruits may be aposematic. Plant Signaling & Behav. 4: 836841.

  • Lev-Yadun S. Ne’eman G. Shanas U. (2009). A sheep in wolf’s clothing: Do carrion and dung odours of flowers not only attract pollinators but also deter herbivores? BioEssays. 31: 8488.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lev-Yadun S. Ne’eman G. Keasar T. (2018). Differences in flower colors between spiny and non-spiny Asteraceae species: A possible case of aposematism? Flora. 239: 98103.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lindström L. Alatalo R.V. Mappes J. (1999). Reactions of hand-reared and wild-caught predators toward waringly colored, gregarious, and conspicuous prey. Behav. Ecol. 10: 317322.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Manzur M.I. Courtney S.P. (1984). Influence of insect damage in fruits of hawthorn on bird foraging and seed dispersal. Oikos. 43: 265270.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Massei G. Cotterill J.V. Coats J.C. Bryning G. Cowan D.P. (2007). Can Batesian mimicry help plants to deter herbivory? Pest Manag . Sci. 63: 559563.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Michel J.F. (1955). Parasitological significance of bovine grazing behaviour. Nature. 175: 10881089.

  • Midgley J .J. (2004). Why are spines of African Acacia species white? Afr. J. Range & For. Sci. 21: 211212.

  • Midgley J.J. Botha M.A. Balfour D. (2001). Patterns of thorn length, density, type and colour in African Acacias. Afr. J. Range & For. Sci. 18: 5961.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Midgley J.J. Abbas H. Armel M.P. (2016). Further evidence that in African acacia, white is a warning colour to herbivores; the white pseudo-galls of Vachellia seyal . Afr. J. Range & For. Sci. 33: 127129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mithöfer A. Boland W. (2012). Plant defense against herbivores: chemical aspects. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 63: 431450.

  • Moore B.P. Brown W.V. Rothschild M. (1990). Methylalkylpyrazines in aposematic insects, their hostplants and mimics. Chemoecology. 1: 4351.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Müller F. (1879). Ituna and Thyridia; a remarkable case of mimicry in butterflies. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Lond . 1879: xxxxix.

  • Mwafongo E. Vollsnes A.V. Bjorå C.S. Nordal I. Eriksen A.B. (2017). Leaf mottling/variegation and shape in the African plant taxon Ledebouria revoluta complex – Development, stability and putative function. Flora. 236–237: 3343.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Niemelä P. Tuomi J. (1987). Does the leaf morphology of some plants mimic caterpillar damage? Oikos. 50: 256257.

  • Pannell J.R. Farmer E.E. (2016). Mimicry in plants. Curr. Biol. 26: R784R785.

  • Pasteur G. (1982). A classificatory review of mimicry systems. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 13: 169199.

  • Penney H.D. Hassall C. Skevington J.H. Abbott K.R. Sherratt T.N. (2012). A comparative analysis of the evolution of imperfect mimicry. Nature. 483: 461466.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Perevolotsky A. Seligman N. (1998). Role of grazing in Mediterranean rangeland ecosystems. Inversion of a paradigm. BioScience. 48: 10071017.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pijl L. van der Dodson C.H. (1966). Orchid Flowers. Their Pollination and Evolution. Coral Gables, FL: University of Miami Press.

  • Polte S. Reinhold K. (2013). The function of the wild carrot’s dark central floret: attract, guide or deter? Plant Species Biol. 28: 8186.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Poulton E.B. (1890). The Colours of Animals. Their Meaning and Use. Especially Considered in the Case of Insects. 2nd edn. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Poulton J.E. (1990). Cyanogenesis in plants. Plant Physiol. 94: 401405.

  • Provenza F.D. Kimball B.A. Villalba J.J. (2000). Roles of odor, taste, and toxicity in the food preferences of lambs: implications for mimicry in plants. Oikos. 88: 424432.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Purser B. (2003). Jungle Bugs: Masters of Camouflage and Mimicry. Toronto: Firefly Books.

  • Quicke D.L.J. (2017). Mimicry Crypsis Masquerade and Other Adaptive Resemblances. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell.

  • Rand K. Bar E. Ben-Ari M. Lewinsohn E. Inbar M. (2014). The mono – and sesquiterpene content of aphid-induced galls on Pistacia palaestina is not a simple reflection of their composition in intact leaves. J. Chem. Ecol. 40: 632642.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rand K. Bar E. Ben-Ari. M Davidovich-Rikanati R. Dudareva N. Inbar M. Lewinsohn E. (2017). Differences in monoterpene biosynthesis and accumulation in Pistacia palaestina leaves and aphid-induced galls. J. Chem. Ecol. 43: 143152.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reeves J.L. (2011). Vision should not be overlooked as an important sensory modality for finding host plants. Environ. Entomol. 40: 855863.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rhoades D.F. (1979). Evolution of plant chemical defense against herbivores. In: Rosenthal G.A. Janzen D.H. eds. Herbivores Their Interaction with Secondary Plant Mmetabolites. Orlando, FL: Academic Press pp. 354.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rivero-Lynch A.P. Brown V.K. Lawton J.H. (1996). The impact of leaf shape on the feeding preference of insect herbivores: experimental and field studies with Capsella and Phyllotreta . Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. 351: 16711677.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rolfe R.A. (1910). The bee-orchis. Orch. Rev. 10: 261.

  • Ronel M. Lev-Yadun S. (2012). The spiny, thorny and prickly plants in the flora of Israel. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 168: 344352.

  • Ronel M. Khateeb S. Lev-Yadun S. (2009). Protective spiny modules in thistles of the Asteraceae in Israel. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 136: 4656.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ronel M. Ne’eman G. Lev-Yadun S. (2010). Spiny east-Mediterranean plant species flower later and in a drier season than non-spiny species. Flora. 205: 276281.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rostás M. Maag D. Ikegami M. Inbar M. (2013). Gall volatiles defend aphids against a browsing mammal. BMC Evol. Biol. 13: 193.

  • Rothschild M. (1972). Some observations on the relationship between plants, toxic insects and birds. In: Harborne J.B. ed. Phytochemical Ecology. London: Academic Press pp. 112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rothschild M. (1974). Modified stipules of Passiflora which resemble horned caterpillars. Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 39: 16.

  • Rothschild M. (1980). Remarks on carotenoids in the evolution of signals. In: Gilbert L.E. Raven P.H. eds. Coevolution of Animals and Plants. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press pp. 2051.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rothschild M. (1984). Aide mémoire mimicry. Ecol. Entomol. 9: 311319.

  • Rothschild M. (1986). The red smell of danger. New Sci. 111 (September 4): 3436.

  • Rothschild M. Moore B. (1987). Pyrazines as alerting signals in toxic plants and insects. In: Labeyrie V. Fabres G. Lachaise D. eds. Insects – Plants. Dordrecht: Dr W. Junk Publishers pp. 97101.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rothschild M. Moore B.P. Brown W.V. (1984). Pyrazines as warning odour components in the Monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus, and in moths of the genera Zygaena and Amata (Lepidoptera). Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 23: 375380.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rowland H.M. Ihalainen E. Lindström L. Mappes J. Speed M. (2007). Co-mimics have a mutualistic relationship despite unequal defences. Nature. 448: 6467.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rowland H.M. Mappes J. Ruxton G.D. Speed M.P. (2010). Mimicry between unequally defended prey can be parasitic: evidence for quasi-Batesian mimicry. Ecol. Lett. 13: 14941502.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Roy B.A. Widmerm A. (1999). Floral mimicry: a fascinating yet poorly understood Phenomenon. Trends Plant Sci. 4: 325330.

  • Rubino D.L. McCarthy B.C. (2004). Presence of aposematic (warning) coloration in vascular plants of southeastern Ohio. J. Torrey Bot. Soc. 131: 252256.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ruxton G.D. Schaefer H.M. (2011). Alternative explanations for apparent mimicry. J. Ecol. 99: 899904.

  • Ruxton G.D. Sherratt T.N. Speed M.P. (2004). Avoiding Atack. The Evolutionary Ecology of Crypsis Warning Signals & Mimicry. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ruxton G.D. Wilkinson D.M. Schaefer H.M. Sherratt T.N. (2015). Why fruit rots: theoretical support for Janzen’s theory of microbe-macrobe competition. Proc. R. Soc. B. 281: 20133320.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sajeva M. Costanzo M. (1994). Succulents. The Illustrated Dictionary. Portland, OR: Timber Press.

  • Savage J.M. Slowinski J.B. (1992). The colouration of the venomous coral snakes (family Elapidae) and their mimics (families Aniliidae and Colubridae). Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 45: 235254.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schaedelin F.C. Taborsky M. (2009). Extended phenotypes as signals. Biol. Rev. 84: 293313.

  • Schaefer H.M. Rolshausen G. (2006). Plants on red alert: do insects pay attention? BioEssays. 28: 6571.

  • Schaefer H.M. Ruxton G.D. (2009). Deception in plants: mimicry or perceptual exploitation? Trends Ecol . Evol. 24: 676685.

  • Schaefer H.M. Ruxton. GD. (2011). Plant-Animal Communication. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

  • Schiestl F.P. (2005). On the success of a swindle: pollination by deception in orchids. Naturwiss. 92: 255264.

  • Schiestl F.P. (2017). Innate receiver bias: its role in the ecology and evolution of plant–animal interactions. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 48: 585603.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Seligman N. Rosensaft Z. Tadmor N. Katzenelson J. Naveh Z. (1959). Natural Pasture of Israel . Vegetation Carrying Capacity and Improvement. Sifriat PoalimMerhavia (in Hebrew).

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shapiro A.M. (1981a). Egg-mimics of Streptanthus (Cruciferae) deter oviposition by Pieris sisymbrii (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). Oecologia. 48: 142143.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shapiro A.M. (1981b). The pierid red-egg syndrome. Amer. Nat. 117: 276294.

  • Sherratt T.N. (2007). Mimicry on the edge. Nature. 448: 3436.

  • Shimshi D. (1979/1980). Two ecotypes of Iris atrofusca Bak. and their relations to man-modified habitats. Isr. J. Bot. 28: 8086.

  • Skelhorn J. (2015). Masquerade. Curr. Biol . 25: R643R644.

  • Skelhorn J. Rowland H.M. Ruxton G.D. (2010a). The evolution and ecology of masquerade. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 99: 18.

  • Skelhorn J. Rowland H.M. Speed M.P. Ruxton G.D. (2010b). Masquerade: camouflage without crypsis. Science. 327: 51.

  • Smith A.P. (1986). Ecology of leaf color polymorphism in a tropical forest species: habitat segregation and herbivory. Oecologia. 69: 283287.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Smith S.M. (1975). Innate recognition of coral snake pattern by a possible avian predator. Science. 187: 759760.

  • Smith S.M. (1977). Coral-snake pattern recognition and stimulus generalization by naïve great kiskadees (Aves: Tyrannidae). Nature. 265: 535536.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Soltau U. Dötterl S. Liede-Schumann S. (2009). Leaf variegation in Caladium steudneriifolium (Araceae): a case of mimicry? Evol. Ecol. 23: 503512.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Speed M.P. (1999). Batesian, quasi-Batesian or Müllerian mimicry? Theory and data in mimicry research. Evol. Ecol. 13: 755776.

  • Speed M.P. Ruxton G.D. (2005). Warning displays in spiny animals: one (more) evolutionary route to aposematism. Evolution. 59: 24992508.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Speed M.P. Ruxton G.D. Mappes J. Sherratt T.N. (2012). Why are defensive toxins so variable? An evolutionary perspective. Biol. Rev. 87: 874884.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Starrett A. (1993). Adaptive resemblance: a unifying concept for mimicry and crypsis. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 48: 299317.

  • Stevens M. (2013). Sensory Ecology Behaviour & Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Stevens M. (2016). Cheats and Deceits. How Animals and Plants Exploit and Mislead. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Stevens M. Merilaita S. eds. (2011). Animal Camouflage. Mechanisms and Function. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Strauss S.Y. Cacho N.I. Schwartz M.W. Schwartz A.C. Burns K.C. (2015). Apparency revisited. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 157: 7485.

  • Thirgood J.V. (1981). Man and The Mediterranean Forest. A History of Resource Depletion. London: Academic Press.

  • Till-Bottraud I. Gouyon P.-H. (1992). Intra- versus interplant Batesian mimicry? A model on cyanogenesis and herbivory in clonal plants. Amer. Nat. 139: 509520.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vereecken N.J. Schiestl F.P. (2009). On the roles of colour and scent in a specialized floral mimicry system. Ann. Bot. 104: 10771084.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Waldbauer G.P. (1988). Aposematism and Batesian mimicry. Measuring mimetic advantage in natural habitats. Evol. Biol . 22: 227259.

  • Wallace A.R. (1889). Darwinism. London: Macmillan and Co.

  • Warren J. (2015). Is wind-mediated passive leaf movement an effective form of herbivore defence? Plant Ecol . Evol. 148: 5256.

  • de Wert L. Mahon K. Ruxton G.D. (2012). Protection by association: evidence for aposematic commensalism. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 106: 8189.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wheeler K.G.R. (2004). A Natural History of Nettles. Victoria: Trafford.

  • Wickler W. (1968). Mimicry in Plants and Animals. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.

  • Wiens D. (1978). Mimicry in plants. Evol. Biol. 11: 365403.

  • Williams K.S. Gilbert L.E. (1981). Insects as selective agents on plant vegetative morphology: egg mimicry reduces egg laying by butterflies. Science. 212: 467469.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Williamson G.B. (1982). Plant mimicry: evolutionary constraints. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 18: 4958.

  • Woolfson A. Rothschild M. (1990). Speculating about pyrazines. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 242: 113119.

  • Yager K.G. Schaefer H.M. Gould K.S. (2016). Shared leaf shape in Alseuosmia pusilla and Pseudowintera colorata: A case of Batesian mimicry? Botany. 94: 555564.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yamazaki K. (2010). Leaf mines as visual defensive signals to herbivores. Oikos. 119: 796801.

  • Yamazaki K. (2011). Gone with the wind: trembling leaves may deter herbivory. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 104: 738747.

  • Yamazaki K. (2016). Caterpillar mimicry by plant galls as a visual defense against herbivores. J. Theor. Biol. 404: 1014.

  • Yamazaki K. (2017). White plant shoots, wax-producing insects and other white structures made by arthropods: A mimicry complex? European J . Entomol. 114: 343349.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yamazaki K. Lev-Yadun S. (2014). Dark axils and nodes in various plant species may serve as defensive mimicry of beetles and beetle faces. J. Nat. Hist. 48: 691698.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yamazaki K. Lev-Yadun S. (2015). Dense white trichome production by plants as possible mimicry of arthropod silk or fungal hyphae that deter herbivory. J. Theor. Biol. 364: 16.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yeo P.F. (1972). Miscellaneous notes on pollination and pollinators. J. Nat. Hist. 6: 667686.

  • Zagrobelny M. Bak S. Møller B.L. (2008). Cyanogenesis in plants and arthropods. Phytochemistry. 69: 14571468.

  • Zheng S.-J. Snoeren T.A.L. Hogewoning S.W. van Loon J.J.A. Dicke M. (2010). Disruption of plant carortenoid biosynthesis through virus-induced gene silencing affects oviposition behaviour of the butterfly Pieris rapae . New Phytol. 186 :733745.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zohary M. (1962). Plant Life of Palestine. Israel and Jordan. New York, NY: Ronald Press.

  • Zohary M. (1983). Man and vegetation in the Middle East. In: Holzner W. Werger M.J.A. Ikusima I. eds. Man’s Impact on VegetationThe Hague: Dr W. Junk BV Publishers pp. 287295.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Figures
  • View in gallery

    A Batesian mimic of thorns/spines/prickles. Unripe fully grown fruits of Erodium lacinlatum from the coastal plain of Israel. They look like red (aposematic) thorns or spines but they are soft and not sharp. When they ripen and dry up, the seeds disperse themselves and drill themselves into the soil. Thus, the red coloration is not aimed to attract dispersing animals.

  • View in gallery

    Two bee-mimicking flowers of the Mediterranean orchid Ophrys carmeli (= Ophrys dinsmorei), a typical Batesian mimicry.

  • View in gallery

    A mature pod of Pisum humile from the Golan Heights, serving as a Batesian mimic of a toxic aposematic caterpillar. When I saw it I thought for several seconds that it was a caterpillar. The photo-lab owner who printed the pictures I took asked me “What are these worms?” and a professor of entomology from Padova, Italy asked me in a lecture I gave there “What are these caterpillars?” Two excellent indications that it is a very good caterpillar mimic.

  • View in gallery

    Arum dioscoridis from Israel has a strong foetid odor proposed not only to attract pollinators, but also to repel herbivores. It serves as a Batesian mimic of carrion and dung.

Index Card
Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 232 232 31
Full Text Views 16 16 2
PDF Downloads 17 17 3
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0