Accumulation of newly identified sulfur containing metabolites in Zygophyllum dumosum Boiss suggest for a role of secondary metabolism in petiole survival during the dry season

in Israel Journal of Plant Sciences
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The biochemical composition of Zygophyllum dumosum Boiss (Zygophyllaceae) was analyzed in petioles collected in the summer and winter from plants growing in a natural ecosystem on a southeast-facing slope of the Negev desert. UPLC-QTOF MS based analysis identified season specific sulfur containing phenylpropanoids unreported in plants. Sulfuric-caffeic and -ferulic acid derivatives and isorhamnetin 3-O-(4-sulfate-rutinoside) were measured to accumulate specifically in the summer. The reported identification and accumulation of sulfate containing metabolites during the hot and dry summer can be related to the putative protective role reported for these compounds.

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Figures
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     A) Study field, southeast-facing slopes in March and August; B) Different growth stages of Z. dumosum Boiss during winter and summer.

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     A) Chromatogram in negative mode showing M-H 258.99 of Caffeic acid 3 or 4 sulfate; B and C) Spectra in TIC 1 and 2 of both metabolites. TIC 1 low collision energy of 6 eV, and TIC 2 high collision energy (ramp from 25 to 50 eV); D and E) One way ANOVA results.

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     A) Chromatogram in negative showing M-H 273.00 of Ferulic acid 4-sulfate and isoferulic 3-sulfate; B and C) Spectra in TIC 1 and 2, respectively (see legend of Fig. 2); D and E) One way ANOVA results.

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     A) Chromatogram in negative mode showing M-H 703.11 of Isorhamnetin 3-(4''-sulfatorutinoside); B and C) Spectra in TIC 1 and 2, respectively (see legend of Fig. 2); D and E) One way ANOVA results.

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     A) Chromatogram in negative mode showing M-H 689.10 of 5,7-Dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxo-4H-chromen-3-yl 6-O-(6-O-sulfo-β-D-glycero-hexopyranosyl)-β-D-glycero-hexopyranoside; B and C) Spectra in TIC 1 and 2, respectively (see legend of Fig. 2); D and E) One way ANOVA results.

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