The article uses early Christian sources to identify three main features of a theological conception of ‘Hell’ (effacement, toxic silence, pointlessness); these three features can be reconstructed in Axel Honneth’s influential writings on Social Pathologies as key characteristics of pathological social conditions that undermine the possibility of a good life—Honneth can be understood to distinguish between pathologies of identity (effacement), pathologies of the social (toxic silence), and pathologies of reason (pointlessness). Catholic social teaching (cst) is presented as a response to these pathologies making use of a ‘therapeutic reading’ of cst documents. Catholic social teaching is presented as an exercise in political imagination developing a deep concept of the human person (against effacement and the pathology of identity), an understanding of the permeability between micro structured and macrostructures (against toxic silence and pathologies of the social), and the recognition of a normative order (against pathologies of reason).
Diarmaid MacCullochSilence. A Christian History (London: Allen Lane2013) p. 191; in a personal account of silence Sara Maitland talks about ‘the dark side’ of silence of dark and heavy silence a silence of being ‘nowhere’ e.g. in the midst of a misty landscape without helpful noise to provide orientation—Sara Maitland A Book of Silence (London: Granta 2008) ch. 3.
Ludwig WittgensteinPhilosophical Investigations (Oxford: Blackwell1967) p. 564—see ibid. p. 62 p. 142 p. 545 and p. 567. A good illustration of what is at stake is especially investigation p. 142: ‘the procedure of putting a lump of cheese on a balance and fixing the price by the turn of the scale would lose its point if it frequently happened for such lumps to suddenly grow or shrink for no obvious reason’. ‘Waiting’ we could say loses its point if there is no clear idea about an event or subject satisfying the conditions of ‘the wait is over’.
HonnethDisrespect p. 4. Social pathologies are developments that prevent members of society from having a ‘good life’. Social philosophy emerged as a representative of an ethical perspective in the territory of society (p. 33).
Lars G. Hammershøj‘The Social Pathologies of Self-Realization: A diagnosis of the consequences of the shift in individualization’Educational Philosophy and Theory41:5 (2009) 507–526 at 512. Loneliness can be seen as a particular social pathology in our days and times—see White Lonely.
HonnethDisrespect p. 24; concerning the German tradition of anthropology see Andrea Borsari ‘Notes on “Philosophical Anthropology” and Contemporary German Thought’ Iris. European Journal of Philosophy and Public Debate 1 (April 2009) 113–130.
HonnethDisrespect p. 30. Honneth suggests not too far from Arendt’s approach ‘reflexive cooperation’ as the basis of functioning democratic societies—Axel Honneth ‘Democracy as Reflexive Cooperation’ Political Theory 26:6 (1998) 763–783.
Zurn‘Social Pathologies as Second-Order Disorders’ p. 346. Bob Cannon who worked extensively on the demands of critical theory shares this concern: ‘Thus rather than looking to individuals to acquire moral identities via the sublation of material interests critical theory should look to the way individuals forge new social identities in response to the individuating forces of modernity . . . Let me reiterate the recovery of ‘ethical life’ is not achieved by transcending sociality but by transforming it in line with the normatively constituted ends of participants’. Bob Cannon Rethinking the Normative Content of Critical Theory. Marx Habermas and Beyond (New York ny: Palgrave 2001) p. 182.