* C Copyright, West Publishing Co., 1987, all rights reserved.
* Some footnotes are omitted, those included are not renumbered. - Ed.
2 The Court of Appeals thus rejected petitioner's claim that respondent's complaint alleged only national origin and religious discrimination, assertedly not reached by § 1981.
4 There is a common popular understanding that there are three major human races - Caucasoid, Mongoloid, and Negroid. Many modern biologists and anthropologists, however, criticize racial classifications as arbitrary and of little use in understanding the variability of human beings. It is said that genetically homogenous populations do not exist and traits are not discontinuous between populations; therefore, a population can only be described in terms of relative frequencies of various traits. Clear-cut categories do not exist. The particular traits which have generally been chosen to characterize races have been criticized as having little biological significance. It has been found that differences between individuals of the same race are often greater than the differences between the 'average' individuals of different races. These observations and others have led some, but not all, scientists to conclude that racial classifications are for the most part sociopolitical, rather than biological, in nature ...
5 We note that under prior cases, discrimination by States on the basis of ancestry violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment ... * The concurring opinion of Brenna, J. is omitted. - Ed.