The registration and regulation of marriage was one aspect of the Russian empire's modernization policies in the nineteenth century. Efforts by Russian state authorities to establish better control over their subjects through the registration and regulation of marriages created new questions and problems for the Muslim community and its understanding of the legality of marriage. This article focuses on the complications created by modern governance policies in the marriage practices of Russia’s Muslims. Even though the state wanted the Muslim family to be stable so that it might serve as the foundation of an imperial order, new laws introduced by the state caused confusion and disagreement within the Muslim community about the validity of marriages and disrupted the stability of the Muslim family.
Werth“The Limits of Religious Ascription”502–03. Petitions sent by apostates to the OA after the 1905 Manifesto on Religious Freedom reveal that there were licensed and unlicensed mullas among apostates and that these mullas performed religious rites for them.
Kenneth Cuno“Women with Missing Husbands: Marriage in Nineteenth Century Egypt,” in Objectivity and Subjectivity in the Historiography of Egypt: In Honor of Nelly Hannaed. Nasser Ahmed Ibrahim (Cairo: General Egyptian Book Organization2012) 156–70.