Beyond the Taqlīd/Ijtihād Dichotomy: Daghestani Legal Thought under Russian Rule


in Islamic Law and Society
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As one of the first scholarly studies of Jirāb al-Mamnūn, a collection of letters by the Daghestani Shāfiʿī scholar Ḥasan al-Alqadārī (1834–1910), this article challenges the ijtihād/taqlīd dichotomy within Islamic legal thought and argues for a more comprehensive understanding of the dialectic between reason and authority. Along the way, we examine the influence of al-Alqadārī’s taqlīd-based methodology on his attitudes toward confessional differences within and outside Islam. The article contributes to current debates on the role of reason and authority in the writings of Muslim scholars living under colonial rule.


Beyond the Taqlīd/Ijtihād Dichotomy: Daghestani Legal Thought under Russian Rule


in Islamic Law and Society

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References

4

 Joseph SchachtAn Introduction to Islamic Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press1964) 71 emphasis added.

9

 See Michael KemperHerrschaft Recht und Islam in Daghestan – Von den Khanaten und Gemeindebünden zum gihad-Staat (Wiesbaden: Ludwig Reichert Verlag2005) 217–24.

10

 Michael Kemper“Daghestani Shaykhs and Scholars in Russian Exile: Networks of Sufism, Fatwas and Poetry,” in Daghestan and the World of Islamed. Moshe Gammer and David J. Wasserstein (Helsinki: Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fennicae2006) 95–107. On Muslim scholarly networks during the Soviet period see Michael Kemper Raoul Motika ­Stefan Reichmuth eds Islamic Education in the Soviet Union and Its Successor States (London: Routledge 2010).

11

 See most recently Mustafa TunaImperial Russia’s Muslims: Islam Empire and European Modernity 1788–1914 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press2015) and the contributions to this theme issue.

17

 See for example Kemper“Daghestani Shaykhs” 101.

32

 Al-Alqadārī  Jirāb al-Mamnūn279–81.

43

 Kemper“Daghestani Shaykhs” 104.

44

 Kemper“Daghestani Shaykhs” 104.

51

 See KemperSufis und Gelehrte in Tatarien und Baschkirien429–65.

52

 Al-Alqadārī  Jirāb al-Mamnūn291.

53

 Al-Alqadārī  Jirāb al-Mamnūn292.

54

 Al-Alqadārī  Jirāb al-Mamnūn64.

56

 Al-Alqadārī  Jirāb al-Mamnūn47.

57

 Al-Alqadārī  Jirāb al-Mamnūn48.

60

 Al-Alqadārī  Jirāb al-Mamnūn153–4.

61

 Al-Alqadārī  Jirāb al-Mamnūn61.

63

 Al-Alqadārī  Jirāb al-Mamnūn107.

65

 Al-Alqadārī  Jirāb al-Mamnūn107.

66

 Al-Alqadārī  Jirāb al-Mamnūn157–61.

67

 Al-Alqadārī  Jirāb al-Mamnūn54.

70

 Kemper“Daghestani Shaykhs” 104. A third approach is offered by Sonia Chesnin “Тraditsii arabskoi klassicheskoi literatury v tvorchestve Gasana Alkadari” (PhD dissertation Makhachkala 2002) who views al-Alqadārī through the prism of his Arabic literary influences.

73

 See Sudipta Kaviraj“An Outline of a Revisionist Theory of Modernity,” European Journal of Sociology 46.3 (2005): 497–526 where he critically addresses the notion of modernity as rupture.

75

 See V.O. Bobrovnikov“Verbrechen und Brauchtum zwishen islamischem und imperialem Recht: Zum Entzauberung des işkîl im Daghestan des 17. bis 19. Jahrhunderts,” Rechtspluralismus in der Islamischen Welted. M. Kemper and M. Reinkowski (Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter 2005) 297–315; and Michael Kemper “Adat against Shariʿa: Russian Approaches towards Daghestani ‘Customary Law’ in the 19th Century” Ab Imperio 3 (2005): 147–73.

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