The Formation and Regulations of the Military Hunt in Qing Mongolia

in Inner Asia
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Abstract

In the Mongolian tradition, hunting and war have had strong connections with each other. During the Qing Empire, Mongolian hunts were not only local practices, but were also involved in the Qing empire-building project. On the other hand, the collective hunt itself was by nature a dangerous activity that contained potential physical risks from wild animal attacks as well as human errors. It is conventionally understood that the hunt therefore must have been well organised in order to secure success and security. But how a hunt was organised and operated in reality has not yet been well examined. This study explores the organisational structure and regulations of a military hunt in Qing Inner Mongolia, a geographically important zone where both the Manchus and Mongols actively held hunts. The primary focus of this article is the nineteenth-century Alasha Banner grand hunt, a well-organised and documented Mongolian military hunt from the Qing period.

The Formation and Regulations of the Military Hunt in Qing Mongolia

in Inner Asia

Sections

References

  • Alashan qi diaocha cailiao zhi san. Nei Menggu zizhi qu Bayan Nao’er meng Alashan qi qingdai danxing fagui ji minxingshi anjian panli zhaiyi Alashan qi diaocha cailiao zhi san. Beijing: Quanguo renmin daibiao dahui minzu weiyuanhui bangongshi [Office of the Ethnic Affairs Committee, National People’s Congress]1958.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ALBA [Alasha Left Banner Archives]. MS no. 101-4-94: [no title and year given].

  • ALBA. MS no. 101-5-7: Egüride qauli bolγan toγtaγaγad daγaǰu yabuγulqu-yin dangsa [1821].

  • ALBA. MS no. 101-5-52: Törö gereltü-yin yisüdüger on qabur-un terigün sara-yin sine-yin nigen-eče ebül-ün segül sara-yin ečüs kürtele qulaγai ba ǰarγu-yin ǰüil-i sidkegsen dangsa [1829].

  • ALBA. MS no. 101-5-57: ǰakiya-yin tobči dangsa [1821].

  • ALBA. MS no. 101-5-78: Tamaγa-yin γaǰar ǰisiyalan saγuqu sayid tüsimed-ün neres [1833].

  • ALBA. MS no. 101-6-55: Ere-yin če [1859].

  • ECH. Emperor of China: Self-portrait of K’ang-hsi (translated J.D. Spence). New York (NY): Vintage1975.

  • ET. Erdeni-yin Tobči in Yang Haiying (comp.) Mōko genryū: 105197. Tokyo: Fūkyō sha2007.

  • IMARA [Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region Archives]. MS no. 502-1-10: Tengri tedkugsen-u 28 on-u ǰakiya dangsa [1763].

  • JQACKD. ǰasaγtu Qan ayimaγ-un čiqula kereg-ün dangsa (comp. Mongol ulus-un ündüsün-ü töb arkiv). Ulaanbaatar2002.

  • ML. Manwen Laodang [The Old Manchu Chronicles] (trans. & annotated Zhongguo diyi lishi dang’an guan & Zhongguo shehui kexueyuan lishi yanjiusuo). Beijing: Zhonghua shuju1990vol. 2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MLC [Mongolian Legal Code]. Γadaγadu Mongγol-un törö-yi ǰasaqu yabudal-un yamun-u qauli ǰüil-ün bičig2 vols. (comp. Nayiraltu & Altan’orgil). Hohhot: Öbör Mongγol-un suyul-un keblel-ün qoriya1989.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • QJ. Qalqa Jirum (Annotated Doronatib). Hohhot: Öbör Mongγol-un surγan kömüǰil-ün keblel-ün qoriya1989.

  • AllsenT.T. 2006. The Royal Hunt in Eurasian History. Philadelphia (PA): University of Pennsylvania Press.

  • AokiT. 1941. Kodai mōko jin no kyōdō shuryō sei to heisei [The collective hunt and the military system of the ancient Mongols] in Katō hakushi kanreki kinen tōyō shi shūsetsu [An oriental history Festschrift for the sixtieth birthday of Dr Kato]: 119. Tokyo: Toyamabo.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • AtwoodC.P. 2004. Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire. New York (NY): Facts On File.

  • ChuluuKh.E. 2017. The encircling hunt of Mongolia: Institutional structures and socio-political implications. Tōyō bunka kenkyūjo kiyō [Memoirs of the Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia]: 2558.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Čige. 2004. Erten-ü Mongγol-un qauli čaγaǰa-yin teüke [Pre-modern Mongolian legal history]. Shenyang: Liyouning-un ündüsüten-ü keblel-ün qoriya.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • DorgiB. 2002. Alasha Qošud [The Alasha Khoshuud]2 vols. Hohhot: Öbör Mongγol-un suyul-un keblel-ün qoriya.

  • DunnJ.P. 2005. Khedive Ismail’s Army. London: Routledge.

  • ElliottM.C. 2001. The Manchu Way: The Eight Banner and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China. Stanford (CA): Stanford University Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ElliottM.C. & N. Chia. 2004. The Qing hunt at Mulan in J.A. Millwardet al. (eds.) New Qing Imperial History: 6683. London/New York: RoutledgeCurzon.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Erdenchuluu. 2011. Shindai Mongoru no arasha ki ni okeru saiban, tū [The judicial system of the Alaša Banner in Qing Mongolia, Part Two]. Hogakuronso [Kyoto Law Review] 170(2): 136161.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • GieseM. 2013. Legal regulation on hunting in the barbarian law codes of the early Middle Ages in O. Grimm & U. Schmölcke (eds.) Hunting in Northern Europe until 1500 AD: Old traditions and regional developments continental sources and sontinental influences: 485504. Neumünster: Wachholtz.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HagiharaM. 1993. Shinchō no mōkorei: ‘Mōko ritsurei’ ‘rihanin sokurei’ hoka [Qing-Dynasty’s Mongolian legal codes: Menggu Lüli, Lifanyuan Zeli and others] in Shūzō Shiga (ed.) Chūgoku hōseishi: Kihon shiryō no kenkyū [Chinese Legal History: Studies on Basic Source Materials]: 623656. Tokyo: Tokyo daigaku shuppankai.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • HasumiH. 1977. Mongoru ni okeru makigari no ichi shiryō [A source on the Mongolian encircling hunt]. Yūboku shakaishi kenkyū [Journal of Nomadic Social History] 50: 27.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • JagchidS. & P. Hyer. 1974. Mongolia’s Culture and Society. Boulder (CO): Westview Press.

  • KadyrbaevA. 1998. Sakskii voin-simvol dukha predkov [Saks warrior: A symbol of ancestors’ spirit]. Almaty: Kazak Entsiklopediiasy.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • KoyanagiT. 2015. Waga kuni no shuryō hōsei: Sasshō kindan to ranba [The Hunting Regulations of Japan: The Prohibition on Hunting and Reservations for Wild Animals]. Tokyo: Seirin shoin.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lubsangčoyidan. 1981. Mongol-un ǰang aγali-yin oyilaburi [Encyclopedia of Mongolian Customs] (ed. & annotated Qa. Danbiǰalsan). Hohhot: Öbör Mongγol-un arad-un keblel-ün qoriya.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • MorganD. 2007. The Mongols (2nd edition). Malden/Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

  • NozakiM. 1975. Mongoru shakai ni okeru shuryō no igi ni tsuite: Toriwake shinji to shuryō no kankei kara [On the role of the hunt in Mongolian society: a focus on the relationship between worship and the hunt]. Tōyōshien [Journal of Oriental Research] 8: 3139.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • OehrlS. 2013. Hunting in the west Norwegian Gulathing Law (Gulaþingslǫg/Gulaþingbόk) in O. Grimm and U. Schmölcke (eds.) Hunting in Northern Europe until 1500 AD: Old traditions and regional developments continental sources and continental influences: 505514. Neumünster: Wachholtz.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Purujebarisukii (Przhevalsky). 1938. Arashan (trans. K. Tanaka). Zenrin kyōkai chōsa geppō [Monthly Bulletin of the Zenrin Association] 78: 3545.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • RawskiE.S. 1998. The Last Emperors: A social history of Qing Imperial Institutions. Berkeley/Los Angeles/London: University of California Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ShimadaM. 1954. Mongoru ni okeru shuryō no kanshū: Yūboku no min ni okeru shoyū no mondai, jō [Hunting customs of Mongolia: an inquiry into the concept of ownership among the nomadic people, Part One]. Horitsu Ronso [The Meiji Law Review] 28(1): 1438.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • SinorD. 1977. Some remarks on the economic aspects of hunting in central Eurasia in D. SinorInner Asia and its Contacts with Medieval Europe: 119127. London: Variorum Reprints.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wang Guojun. 2006. Menggu jiwen [Records of Experiences in Mongolia] (eds. & annotated Maxi & Xu Shiming). Hohhot: Nei Menggu renmin chubanshe.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 225 208 29
Full Text Views 209 209 0
PDF Downloads 8 8 0
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0