Theorizing the Impact of Trust on Post-Agreement Negotiations: The Case of Franco-German Security Relations

in International Negotiation
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

Abstract

In this article we argue that trust is fundamental to post-agreement negotiations in the field of international security. We present our concept of interstate trust and discuss its relation to two core mechanisms of international cooperation: control and policy integration. Our main hypothesis is that growing trust reduces a dyad’s reliance on control and leads to intensified policy integration. To specify how the trust-control nexus and the trust-integration nexus structure post-agreement negotiations, we first assume that post-agreement negotiations are likely to follow interstate crises. Second, we theorize crisis reactions and differentiate between low-trust and high-trust situations. In low-trust situations, a crisis indicates a failure to control the actions of others. As a response, demands for institutional reform will stress new and improved control mechanisms. In high-trust situations, the trusting bias defuses most of the doubts about the other’s cooperative preferences and points to miscommunication as the principal issue. Therefore, negotiations will be about intensifying policy integration. States do so for three purposes: sustaining valuable integration, overcoming the crisis, and building trust. As a first plausibility probe for our argument, we look at post-agreement negotiations between France and Germany.

Theorizing the Impact of Trust on Post-Agreement Negotiations: The Case of Franco-German Security Relations

in International Negotiation

Sections

References

AbbottKenneth W.SnidalDuncan “Hard and Soft Law in International Governance” International Organization 2000 54 3 421 456

AdlerEmanuelBarnettMichael AdlerEmanuelBarnettMichael “A Framework for the Study of Security Communities” Security communities 1998 Cambridge Cambridge University Press

Allensbach Das Ansehen der Deutschen. Eine Repräsentativbefragung in den Vereinigten Staaten in Großbritannien und Frankreich im Auftrag der Redaktion des STERN 1984 Allensbach Institut für Demoskopie Allensbach

BaasnerFrank SeidendorfStefan “Die aktuelle Architektur der deutsch-französischen Zusammenarbeit” Deutsch-französische Beziehungen als Modellbaukasten? Zur Übertragbarkeit von Aussöhnung und strukturierter Zusammenarbeit 2012 Baden-Baden Nomos 76 87

BarbaletJack “Social Emotions: Confidence, Trust and Loyalty” International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 1996 16 9/10 75 96

BeckerL. C. “Trust as Noncognitive Security about Motives” Ethics 1996 107 1 43 61

BoothKenWheelerNicholas J The Security Dilemma. Fear Cooperation and Trust in World Politics 2008 New York Palgrave Macmillan

BradleyCurtis A.KelleyJudith G. “The Concept of International Delegation” Law and Contemporary Problems 2008 71 1 1 36

CIA “Intelligence Memorandum: The NATO Problem: French Forces in Germany” [accessed 23 July 2013] Available at: http://www.foia.cia.gov/sites/default/files/document_conversions/89801/DOC_0000429554.pdf

Copenhagen Post “Nordic countries to share warplanes” 2012 8 November 2012. Available at: http://cphpost.dk/news/international/nordic-countries-share-warplanes

Eurobarometer Public Opinion in the European Community 1986 [accessed 23 July 2013] Brussels Commission of the European Communities Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/eb/eb25/eb25_en.pdf

GnesottoNicole KaiserKarlLellouchePierre “Der Sicherheitspolitische Dialog 1954 bis 1986” Deutsch-Französische Sicherheitspolitik. Auf dem Wege zur Gemeinsamkeit? 1986 Bonn Europa Union Verlag GmbH.

GrosserAlfred Frankreich und seine Außenpolitik 1944 bis heute 1989 München DTV

HardinRussel Trust and Trustworthiness 2002 New York, NY Russell Sage Foundation

HewstoneMilesJasparsJosLalljeeMansur “Social Representations, Social Attribution and Social Identity: The Intergroup Images of ‘Public’ and ‘Comprehensive’ Schoolboys” European Journal of Social Psychology 1982 12 3 241 269

HoffmanAaron M. “A Conceptualization of Trust in International Relations” European Journal of International Relations 2002 8 3 375 401

HoggM. AShermanD. K.DierselhuisJoelMaitnerAngela T.MoffittGraham “Uncertainty, Entitativity, and Group Identification” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 2007 43 1 135 142

JervisRobert “Perception and Misperception” International Politics 1976 Princeton, NJ Princeton University Press

JonesK. “Trust as an Affective Attitude” Ethics 1996 107 1 4 25

KierschGerhard JahnEgbertRittbergerVolker “Frankreichs Reaktion auf die westdeutsche Ostpolitik” Die Ostpolitik der BRD 1974 Triebkräfte, Widerstände, Konsequenzen. Opladen Westdeutscher Verlag

KimmelAdolfJardinPierre Die deutsch-französischen Beziehungen seit 1963 Eine Dokumentation 2002 Opladen Leske + Budrich (Frankreich-Studien)

KlingemannHans-DieterWeldonSteven “A Crisis of Integration? The Development of Transnational Dyadic Trust in the European Union, 1954–2004” European Journal of Political Research (Online first) 2013

KocsStephen A. Autonomy or Power? The Franco-German Relationship and Europe’s Strategic Choices 1955–1995 1995 Westport, CT Praeger

KoenigGünther TomuschatChristianFroweinJochen Abraham “Die Strukturen der deutsch-französischen Zusammenarbeit auf dem Gebiet der Sicherheits- und Verteidigungspolitik” Rechtsprobleme einer europäischen Sicherheits- und Verteidigungspolitik 1997 Heidelberg Müller

KolboomIngo “Deutsch-französische Beziehungen und (k)ein Ende . . ” Dokumente. Zeitschrift für den deutsch-französischen Dialog 2002 58 4 54 59

KoremenosBarbaraLipsonCharlesSnidalDuncan “The Rational Design of International Institutions” International Organization 2001 55 4 761 799

KotthoffMarcel Die Entwicklung der deutsch-französischen Sicherheitskooperation seit dem Ende des Ost-West-Konflikts 2011 Wiesbaden VS Verlag

KrotzUlrich “Regularized Intergovernmentalism: France-Germany and Beyond (1963–2009)” Foreign Policy Analysis 2010 6 2 147 185

KrotzUlrichSchildJoachim Shaping Europe. France Germany and Embedded Bilateralism from the Elysee Treaty to Twenty-first Century Politics 2012 Oxford Oxford University Press

KupchanCharles How Enemies Become Friends: The Sources of Stable Peace 2010 Princeton, NJ Princeton Univ. Press

KyddAndrew H. “Trust, Reassurance, and Cooperation” International Organization 2000 54 325 357

KyddAndrew H. Trust and Mistrust in International Relations 2005 Princeton, NY Princeton University Press

LappenküperU. Mitterrand und Deutschland. Die enträtselte Sphinx 2011 München Oldenbourg

LewickiR. J.BrinsfieldChad T. DonohueWilliamRoganRandallKaufmanSandra “Framing Trust: Trust as a Heuristic” Framing Matters. Perspectives on Negotiation Research and Practice in Communication 2011 New York Peter Lang 110 135

LindbergLeon N. The Political Dynamics of European Economic Integration 1963 Stanford, CA Stanford University Press

LuhmannNiklas Vertrauen: Ein Mechanismus der Reduktion sozialer Komplexität 2000 Stuttgart Lucius und Lucius

McEvilyB. BachmanR.ZaheerA. “Can Groups Be Trusted? An Experimental Study of Trust in Collective Entities” Handbook of Trust Research 2006 Cheltenham Edward Elgar

MellewigtT.MadhokA. “Trust and Formal Contracts in Interorganizational Relationships – Substitutes and Complements” Managerial and Decision Economics 2007 28 8 833 847

MercerJonathan “Emotional Beliefs” International Organization 2010 64 1 1 31

MerritR. L.PuchalaD. J. Western European Perspectives on International Affairs 1968 New York PRAEGER

MessickD. M.KramerRoderick M. CookKaren S. “Trust as a Form of Shallow Morality” Trust in Society 2001 New York Russell Sage Foundation

Miard-DelacroixHélène Im Zeichen der europäischen Einigung 1963 bis in die Gegenwart 2011 Darmstadt Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft

MichelTorsten “Time to Get Emotional. Phronetic Reflections on the Concept of Trust in International Relations” European Journal of International Relations 2012 Online First

MöllerH. Akten zur Auswärtigen Politik der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1981 – Band I 2012 München Oldenbourg

MöllerH.HildebrandK. Die Bundesrepublik Deutschland und Frankreich. Dokumente 1949–1963 1999 Berlin De Gruyter

MölleringGuido Trust Reason Routine Reflexivity 2006 Amsterdam Elsevier

MüllerHarald CarlsnaesWalterRisse-KappenThomasSimmonsBeth A. “Security Cooperation” Handbook of International Relations 2003 London, UK and Thousand Oaks, CA SAGE Publications

NooteboomBart BachmannReinhardZaheerAkbar “Forms, Sources and Processes of Trust” Handbook of Trust Research 2006 Cheltenham Edward Elgar

PuchalaDonald J. “International Transactions and Regional Integration” International Organization 1970 24 4 732 763

RathbunB. C. “Before Hegemony: Generalized Trust and the Creation and Design of International Security Organizations” International Organization 2011 65 2 243 273

RathbunB. C. “From Vicious to Virtuous Circle: Moralistic Trust, Diffuse Reciprocity, and the American Security Commitment to Europe” European Journal of International Relations 2012 18 2 323 344

ReyMarie-Pierre FinkCaroleSchaeferBernd “Chancellor Brandt’s Ostpolitik, France, and the Soviet Union” Ostpolitik 1969–1974: European and global responses. 2009 Cambridge Cambridge University Press

SalmonPatrickHamiltonKeitherTwiggieStephen Documents on British Policies Overseas.German Unification 1989–1990 2010 3 7 London Routledge

SchabertTilo Wie Weltgeschichte gemacht wird. Frankreich und die Deutsche Einheit 2002 Stuttgart Klett-Cotta

SoutouGeorges Henri PompidouGeorge “L’attitude de Georges Pompidoud face à l’Allemagne” Association Geroges Pompidou 1995 25 6

SoutouGeorges Henri L’alliance incertaine. Les rapports politico-stratégiques franco-allemands 1954–1996 1996 Paris Fayard

SoutouGeorges Henri HaftendornHelga “President Pompidou, Ostpolitik, and the Strategy of Détente” The Strategic Triangle. France Germany and the United States in the Shaping of the New Europe 2006 Baltimore, MD Johns Hopkins University Press

SOFRES Opinion publique. Enquêtes et commentaires 1984 Paris Gallimard

SOFRES L’etat de l’opinion 1990 Paris Seuil

SOFRES L’etat de l’opinion 1991 Paris Seuil

SpectorBertram I.ZartmanI. William Getting It Done. Post-Agreement Negotiation and International Regimes 2003 Washington, D.C. United States Institute of Peace Press

SydowJ. BachmannR.ZaheerA. “How Can Systems Trust Systems? A Structuration Perspective on Trust Building in Inter-organizational Relations” Handbook of Trust Research 2006 Cheltenham et al. Edward Elgar

SztompkaPiotr Trust A Sociological Theory 1999 Cambridge, UK Cambridge University Press

TaylorDonald M.JaggiVaishna “Ethnocentrism and Causal Attribution in a South Indian Context” Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 1974 5 2 162 171

VlaarPaul W. L.van den BoschFrans A. J.VolberdaHenk W. “On the Evolution of Trust, Distrust, and Formal Coordination and Control in Interorganizational Relationships: Toward an Integrative Framework” Group & Organization Management 2007 32 4 407 428

WeidenfeldWernerWagnerPeter M.BruckElke Aussenpolitik für die deutsche Einheit. Die Entscheidungsjahre 1989/90 1998 Stuttgart DTV

WheelerNicholas J. “Beyond Waltz’s Nuclear World: More Trust May be Better” International Relations 2009 23 3 428 445

WoolthuisRosalindeHillebrandBasNooteboomBart “Trust and Formal Control in Interorganizational Relationships” ERIM Report Series Research in Management 2002 Rotterdam Erasmus Research Institute of Management

Figures

Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 30 30 18
Full Text Views 12 12 12
PDF Downloads 3 3 3
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0