un Mediators’ Collaboration with Scholars and Expert ngos: Explaining the Need for Knowledge-Based Communities in Today’s Conflicts

In: International Negotiation
View More View Less
  • 1 Sciences Po Paris, 56 Rue Jacob, 75006 Paris, France

Purchase instant access (PDF download and unlimited online access):

$30.00

un mediators work more and more closely with academics and expertise-based non-governmental organizations, in particular through the Mediation Support Unit. The Organization appears to genuinely rely on them to conduct mediation and to strengthen its capacity in the area, to the point where it is sometimes difficult to operate a clear distinction between the two types of actors. This article analyzes why the practice of mediation today creates a demand for such expertise-focused cooperation. Beyond the need for flexibility and additional resources, the explanation lies in the prevailing feeling of uncertainty caused by today’s internal conflicts, for which the traditional state-centric lens is becoming irrelevant. In this context, the un relies on knowledge produced by an epistemic community of peace and conflict scholars, and is embedded in a network of nongovernmental mediators with which it exchanges know-how, following the logic of communities of practice.

  • Aall Pamela “Scholars as Peacemakers: The Contribution of Academic/Practitioners to Conflict Management.” International Studies Perspectives 2002 3 145 153 Academics, Practitioners, and Diplomacy: An isp Symposium on the Theory and Practice of Diplomacy

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Aall Pamela Crocker Chester A., Hampson Fen Osler & Aall Pamela “The Power of Nonofficial Actors in Conflict Management” Leashing the Dogs of War: Conflict Management in a Divided World 2007 Washington, D.C. United States Institute of Peace Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Adler Emanuel & Haas Peter M. “Conclusion: Epistemic Communities, World Order, and the Creation of a Reflective Research Program.” International Organization 1992 46 1 367 390

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • African Union and Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue Managing Peace Processes: Towards More Inclusive Processes – A Handbook for au Practitioners 2013

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ajello Aldo Brasiers d’Afrique: Mémoires d’un émissaire pour la paix 2010 Paris L’Harmattan

  • Azar Edward E. The Management of Protracted Social Conflict: Theory and Cases 1990 Aldershot (UK) & Brookfield (USA) Gower Pub. Co.

  • Badie Bertrand Wiseman Geoffrey & Kerr Pauline “Transnationalizing Diplomacy and Global Governance” Diplomacy in a Globalizing World: Theories and Practices 2012 New York Oxford University Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnett Michael & Finnemore Martha Rules for the World: International Organizations in Global Politics 2004 Ithaca, NY Cornell University Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barnett Michael, Finnemore Martha, Kim Hunjoon, O’Donnell Madalene & Sitea Laura “Peacebuilding: What Is in a Name?” Global Governance 2007 13 35 58

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bartoli Andrea Bercovitch Jacob, Kremenyuk Victor & Zartman I. William ngos and Conflict Resolution” The sage Handbook of Conflict Resolution 2009 London SAGE Publications

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Benner Thorsten, Mergenthaler Stephan & Rotmann Philipp The New World of un Peace Operations: Learning to Build Peace? 2011 Oxford Oxford University Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bouvier Virginia Mediation Support Network Conference, Sando (Sweden) 2010 Washington, D.C. United States Institute of Peace

  • Brahimi Lakhdar & Ahmed Salman In Pursuit of Sustainable Peace: The Seven Deadly Sins of Mediation 2008 New York New York University Center for International Cooperation

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown John S. & Duguid Paul “Organizational Learning and Communities of Practice: Toward a Unified View of Working, Learning and Innovation.” Organization Science 1991 2 1 40 57

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Brown John S. & Duguid Paul “Organizing Knowledge.” Reflections 1999 1 2 28 44

  • Burton John W. Resolving Deep-Rooted Conflict: A Handbook 1987 Lanham, MD University Press of America

  • Call Charles T. un Mediation and the Politics of Transition after Constitutional Crises 2012 New York International Peace Institute

  • Call Charles T. & Cousens Elizabeth M. “Ending Wars and Building Peace. International Responses to War-Torn Societies.” International Studies Perspectives 2008 9 1 1 21

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carayannis Tatiana, Bojicic-Dzelilovic Vesna, Olin Nathaniel, Rigterink Anouk & Schomerus Mareike Practice without Evidence: Interrogating Conflict Resolution Approaches and Assumptions 2014 London Justice and Security Research Programme

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict Preventing Deadly Conflict: Final Report 1997 Washington, DC Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Center for International Development & Conflict Management International Crisis Behavior Project 2006 http://www.cidcm.umd.edu/icb/

  • Chigas Diana Crocker Chester A., Hampson Fen Osler & Aall Pamela “Negotiating Intractable Conflicts: The Contributions of Unofficial Intermediaries,” Grasping the Nettle: Analyzing Cases of Intractable Conflict 2005 Washington, D.C. United States Institute of Peace Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Claude Inis L. Swords into Plowshares: The Problems and Progress of International Organization 1984 New York McGraw-Hill

  • Cooper Andrew F. & Hocking Brian “Governments, Nongovernmental Organisations and the Re-calibration of Diplomacy.” Global Society 2000 14 3 361 376

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Crocker Chester A. Peacemaking and Mediation: Dynamics of a Changing Field 2007 New York International Peace Academy

  • Crocker Chester A., Hampson Fen Osler & Aall Pamela Bercovitch Jacob “Two’s Company but Is Three a Crowd? Some Hypotheses about Multiparty Mediation,” Studies in International Mediation: Essays in Honour of Jeffrey Z. Rubin 2002 New York Palgrave Macmillan

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Eberwein Wolf-Dieter & Schemeil Yves “If You Can’t Beat Them Join Them: Interorganizational Cooperation.” 2005 Revised paper originally prepared for presentation at the World International Studies Conference August 24–27 Istanbul

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • fafo Institute for Applied Social Sciences Command from the Saddle: Managing United Nations Peacebuilding Missions: Recommendations Report of the Forum of the Special Representatives of the Secretary-General 1999 Oslo FAFO Institute for Applied Social Sciences Report 266

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Faget Jacques “Les métamorphoses du travail de paix: État des travaux sur la médiation dans les conflits politiques violents.” Revue française de science politique 2008 58 2 309 333

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fröhlich Manuel Database – Project Peacemaker: The Role of srsgs in Peacemaking, Peacekeeping and Peacbuilding 2008 Jena Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fröhlich Manuel Reinalda Bob “The Special Representatives of the United Nations Secretary-General,” Routledge Handbook of International Organization 2013 Abingdon Routledge

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Fugfugosh Miriam Operationalising Mediation Support: Lessons from Mediation Experiences in the osce Area 2008 Geneva Geneva Centre for Security Policy

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Galtung Johan Peace by Peaceful Means: Peace and Conflict, Development, and Civilization 1996 London Sage

  • Gambari Ibrahim A. Making Good Offices Better: Enhancing un Peacemaking Capabilities 2006 Washington, D.C. Center for Strategic and International Studies, Statesmen’s Forum

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gates Scott “Empirically Assessing the Causes of War.” 2002 43rd Annual Convention of the International Studies Association New Orleans

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gehring Thomas & Oberthür Sebastian “The Causal Mechanisms of Interaction between International Institutions.” European Journal of International Relations 2009 15 1 125 156

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gordenker Leon & Weiss Thomas G. “Devolving Responsibilities: A Framework for Analysing ngos and Services.” Third World Quarterly 1997 18 3 443 455

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Gowan Richard “‘Less Bound to the Desk:’ Ban Ki-moon, the un, and Preventive Diplomacy.” Global Governance 2012 18 387 404

  • Gowan Richard & Jones Bruce D. Back to Basics: The un and Crisis Diplomacy in an Age of Uncertainty 2010 New York Center on International Cooperation, New York University

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haas Peter M. “Introduction: Epistemic Communities and International Policy Coordination.” International Organization 1992 46 1 1 35

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haas Peter M. Badie Bertrand, Berg-Schlosser Dirk & Morlino Leonardo “Epistemic Communities” International Encyclopedia of Political Science 2011 Thousand Oaks, CA Sage

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hague I Convention (i) for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes 1899

  • Harland David un Peacekeeping Operations in Post-Conflict Timor-Leste: Accomplishments and Lessons Learned. untaet Governance and Public Administration: 1999 to mid-2000 2005 Dili United Nations – Peacekeeping Best Practices

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Herbolzheimer Kristian & Leslie Emma Innovation in Mediation Support: The International Contact Group in Mindanao 2013 London Conciliation Resources

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • High-Level Panel of the un Secretary-General on Threats Challenges and Change A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility 2004 New York United Nations Department of Public Information

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Human Security Centre Human Security Report 2005: War and Peace in the 21st Century 2005 New York Oxford University Press

  • International Center for Cooperation and Conflict Resolution Research Proposal: Expanding Online Mediation Support Tools: Mapping Mediation Networks for Effective Conflict Engagement and Intervention 2013 April New York Teachers College, Columbia University

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Johnstone Ian Gowan Richard “Emerging Doctrine for Political Missions” Review of Political Missions 2010 2010 New York New York University Center on International Cooperation

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones Bruce Peacemaking in Rwanda: The Dynamics of Failure 2001 Boulder, CO Lynne Rienner

  • Kaldor Mary New and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era 2007 Stanford, CA Stanford University Press

  • Kalyvas Stathis The Logic of Violence in Civil War 2006 New York Cambridge University Press

  • Kalyvas Stathis “‘New’ and ‘Old’ Civil Wars: A Valid Distinction?” World Politics 2001 54 1 99 118

  • Koremenos Barbara, Lipson Charles & Snidal Duncan “The Rational Design of International Institutions.” International Organization 2001 55 761 799

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lacina Bethany “Explaining the Severity of Civil Wars.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 2006 50 2 276 289

  • Lanz David “Who Gets a Seat at the Table? A Framework for Understanding the Dynamics of Inclusion and Exclusion in Peace Negotiations.” International Negotiation 2011 16 275 295

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lanz David & Gasser Rachel A Crowded Field: Competition and Coordination in International Peace Mediation 2013 Centre for Mediation in Africa Pretoria

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lanz David, Sguaitamatti Damiano & Siegfried Matthias Towards Realizing the Strengths and Mitigating the Challenges of ngo Mediators: Final Report of Consultation Process 2009 Bern, Zurich Mediation Support Project (Swisspeace /CSS-ETH Zurich)

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lanz David, Wählisch Martin, Kirchhoff Lars & Siegfried Matthias Evaluating Peace Mediation 2008 SwissPeace/Center for Peace Mediation/Crisis Management Initiative

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lehmann-Larsen Stine Effectively Supporting Mediation: Developments, Challenges and Requirements 2014 Geneva Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Leslie Emma “Widening the Table: Hybrid Support Groups in Conflict Mediation.” World Politics Review, Feature Report: Getting to Peace: New Approaches to Ending Conflict 2013 9 13

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mack Andrew “Civil War: Academic Research and the Policy Community.” Journal of Peace Research 2002 39 5 515 525

  • McEntee-Atalianis Lisa “Diplomatic Negotiation in an International Organisation: An Exploration of Expert Status and Power.” The International Journal of Diversity in Organizations, Communities and Nations 2008 8 3 265 271

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Murithi Tim & Hudson Judi United Nations Mediation Experience in Africa: Policy Advisory Group Seminar 2006 Cape Town The Centre for Conflict Resolution

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nathan Laurie Towards a New Era in International Mediation 2010 London Crisis States Research Centre

  • Ould Abdallah Ahmedou La diplomatie pyromane: Burundi, Rwanda, Somalie, Bosnie . . .: entretiens avec Stephen Smith 1996 Paris Calmann-Lévy

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Panel of Eminent Persons on un-Civil Society Relations We the Peoples: Civil Society, the United Nations and Global Governance 2004 United Nations, A/58/817

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pouligny Béatrice Peace Operations Seen from Below: un Missions and Local People 2006 Bloomfield, CT Kumarian Press

  • Richmond Oliver P. “A Genealogy of Peacemaking: The Creation and Re-Creation of Order.” Alternatives: Global, Local, Political 2001 26 3 317 349

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Richmond Oliver P. Newman Edward & Richmond Oliver P. “The Linkage between Devious Objectives and Spoiling Behavior in Peace Processes” Challenges to Peacebuilding: Managing Spoilers During Conflict Resolution 2006 Tokyo United Nations University Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rotterdam School of Management – Erasmus University The United Nations: Renewing Its Leadership 2007 Rotterdam Rotterdam School of Management – Erasmus University

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rubin Barnett R. & Jones Bruce “Prevention of Violent Conflict: Tasks and Challenges for the United Nations.” Global Governance 2007 13 391 408

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schemeil Yves “Bringing International Organization In: Global Institutions as Adaptive Hybrids.” Organization Studies 2013 34 2 219 252

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stedman Stephen J. “Spoiler Problems in Peace Processes.” International Security 1997 22 2 5 53

  • Suhrke Astri & Samset Ingrid “What’s in a Figure? Estimating Recurrence of Civil War.” International Peacekeeping 2007 14 2 195 203

  • Swan Jack, Scarbrough Harry & Robertson Maxine “The Construction of “Communities of Practice” in the Management of Innovation.” Management Learning 2002 33 4 477 496

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • ucdp – prio Uppsala Conflict Data Program/Peace Research Institute Oslo Armed Conflict Dataset, 1946–2009 2010 Available from http://www.pcr.uu.se/digitalAssets/19/19228_UCDP_PRIO_ArmedConflictDataset_V4_2010.xls

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • un Mediation Support Unit Fact Sheet: Mediation Support Unit 2006 United Nations Department of Political Affairs

  • un Mediation Support Unit Mediation Support Annual Report 2010 United Nations Department of Political Affairs

  • un Mediation Support Unit Terms of Reference: Academic Advisory Council on Mediation 2013 United Nations Department of Political Affairs

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • un Panel on Peace Operations Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations 2000 United Nations, A/55/305–S/2000/809

  • un Secretary-General Report of the Secretary-General on the Work of the Organization 1988 United Nations, A/43/1 Suppl. 1

  • un Secretary-General An Agenda for Peace: Preventive Diplomacy, Peacemaking and Peace-keeping 1992 United Nations, A/47/277 – S/24111

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • un Secretary-General Supplement to an Agenda for Peace: Position Paper of the Secretary-General on the Occasion of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the United Nations 1995 United Nations, A/50/60 – S/1995/1

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • un Secretary-General Fact Sheet: Strengthening and Reorganizing the Department of Political Affairs. Address to the Fifth Committee of the General Assembly on the 2008–2009 Budget 2007 A/62/251

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • un Secretary-General Report of the Secretary-General on Enhancing Mediation and its Support Activities 2009 United Nations, S/2009/189

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • un Secretary-General Preventive Diplomacy: Delivering Results – Report of the Secretary-General 2011 United Nations, S/2011/552

  • un Secretary-General Report of the Secretary-General on Strengthening the Role of Mediation in the Peaceful Settlement of Disputes, Conflict Prevention and Resolution 2012 United Nations, A/66/811

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wallensteen Peter Understanding Conflict Resolution: War, Peace and the Global System 2011 London Sage Publications

  • Weiss Thomas G., Carayannis Tatiana & Jolly Richard “The “Third” United Nations.” Global Governance 2009 15 123 142

  • Wenger Etienne Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity 1998 Cambridge Cambridge University Press

  • Wenger Etienne, McDermott Richard & Snyder William M. A Guide to Making Knowledge: Cultivating Communities of Practice 2002 Boston Harvard Business School Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Whitfield Teresa Engaging with Armed Groups: Dilemmas and Options for Mediators 2010 Geneva Centre For Humanitarian Dialogue

  • Wils Oliver & Herrberg Antje Evaluation of the Mediation Support Unit Standby Team of Mediation Experts 2011 Norwegian Refugee Council

  • Woodward Susan L. “Do the Root Causes of Civil War Matter? On Using Knowledge to Improve Peacebuilding Interventions.” Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding 2007 1 2 143 170

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Young Crawford “Deciphering Disorder in Africa: Is Identity the Key?” World Politics 2002 54 4 532 557

  • Zahar Marie-Joëlle srsg Mediation in Civil Wars: Revisiting the “Spoiler” Debate.” Global Governance 2010 16 265 280

  • Zartman I. William Zartman I. William “Dynamics and Constraints in Negotiations in Internal Conflicts” Elusive Peace: Negotiating an End to Civil Wars 1995 Washington, D.C. Brookings Institution

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zartman I. William Muldoon James P. Jr., Aviel Joann Fagot, Reitano Richard & Sullivan Earl “Intervening to Prevent State Collpase: The Role of the United Nations” Multilateral Diplomacy and the United Nations Today 1999 Boulder, CO Westview Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zartman I. William Arnson Cynthia J. & Zartman I. William “Need, Creed, and Greed in Intrastate Conflict” Rethinking the Economics of War: The Intersection of Need, Creed, and Greed 2005 Washington, D.C. Woodrow Wilson Center Press

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Zartman I. William Zartman I. William “The Use of Methods and Techniques in a Conflict’s lifespan,” Peacemaking in International Conflict: Methods and Techniques 2007 Washington, D.C. United States Institute of Peace

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    In this time period fall Swisspeace (1988), accord (1992), Conciliation Resources (1994), serapaz (1996), fti (1998), wanep (1998), hd Centre (1999), cmi (2000), seacsn (2001) and fba (2002). Berghof, the Carter Center, npi-Africa and usip were founded during the Cold War (1971, 1982 and 1984 respectively), and the Initiative on Quiet Diplomacy, cpm and cpcs more recently (in 2004, 2007 and 2008, respectively).

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 387 112 4
Full Text Views 208 14 0
PDF Downloads 35 15 0