Federalism, Paradiplomacy and Foreign Policy: A Case of Mutual Neglect

In: International Negotiation
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  • 1 CERI – Sciences Po, 56 rue Jacob, 75006 Paris, France
  • 2 École nationale d’administration publique, 4750, avenue Henri-Julien, 5e étage, Montréal, Québec, Canada H2T 3E5

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Paradiplomacy, federalism and international negotiation are increasingly prevalent phenomena that require more theoretical attention. Successful mobilization of non-central governments has increased their relevance on the international stage. The rise of paradiplomacy complicates conditions for both international negotiation and the formulation of foreign policy in federal regimes. Westphalian state diplomacy is finding it increasingly difficult to cope with the proliferation of ad hoc and informal arrangements that bind non-central governments. The international arena is inhabited by an ever larger number of players that sometimes have significant autonomy from the central state.

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