The Implementation of the Western Climate Initiative: How North American States and Provinces Lead International Climate Negotiations

in International Negotiation
Restricted Access
Get Access to Full Text
Rent on DeepDyve

Have an Access Token?



Enter your access token to activate and access content online.

Please login and go to your personal user account to enter your access token.



Help

Have Institutional Access?



Access content through your institution. Any other coaching guidance?



Connect

The Western Climate Initiative is internationally recognized as a success story in global climate negotiations. However, between the first expression of the idea of a cap-and-trade system in 2007 and the launch of carbon trading in 2013, the number of participating Canadian provinces and us states fell from 11 to 2, and important hurdles risked derailing the project completely. The trajectory of this innovative cross-boundary policy holds important lessons for the prospects and pitfalls of green paradiplomacy in North America. This paper examines the impetus for subnational efforts to combat climate change in the face of federal inaction, and, through detailed examination of the wci, looks at jurisdictional, administrative, legal, political, social and economic factors that complicate the implementation of these initiatives. The analysis enables a better understanding of prospects for the establishment of norms, rules and institutions among North American federated states that can provide durable environmental regimes.

The Implementation of the Western Climate Initiative: How North American States and Provinces Lead International Climate Negotiations

in International Negotiation

Sections

References

AndonovaL. B.BetsilM. M.BulkeleyH., '“Transnational Climate Governance”' (2009) 9(2) Global Environmental Politics: 52-73.

BernierL., '“La mise en oeuvre des politiques publiques ou pourquoi ne pas être compliqué?”', in S. Paquin, L. Bernier and G. Lachapelle (eds), Analyse des politiques publiques, (Presses de l’Université de Montréal, Montréal 2010).

BirklandT. A., An Introduction to the Policy Process: Theories Concepts and Models of Public Policy Making, (M. E. Sharpe, Armonk 2001).

BlatterJ. K., '“Debordering the World of States: Towards a Multi-Level System in Europe and a Multi-Polity System in North America? Insights from Border Regions”' (2001) 7(2) European Journal of International Relations: 175-209.

H. Bruyninckx, S. Happaerts and K. Van den Brande (eds), Sustainable Development and Subnational Governments. Policy-Making and Multi-Level Interactions, (Palgrave Macmillan, New York 2012).

C2ES, California Cap-and-Trade Program Summary, (Center for Climate and Energy Solutions, Arlington 2013).

(2006) Global Warming Solutions Act 2006 Online at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Warming_Solutions_Act_of_2006..

California, (2011) California Air Resources Board adopts key element of state climate plan News Release Sacramento (October 20). Online at: https://www.arb.ca.gov/newsrel/newsrelease.php?id=245..

California, Assembly Bill 32: Global Warming Solutions Act [online], (California Air Resources Board, Sacramento 2013) Online at: http://www.arb.ca.gov/cc/ab32/ab32.htm..

California, Cap-and-trade Program, (California Air Resources Board, Sacramento 2015) Online at: http://www.arb.ca.gov/cc/capandtrade/capandtrade.htm..

ChalouxA., '“Le Québec, les États-Unis et l’environnement”', in G. La-chapelle (ed), Le destin américain du Québec: américanité américanisation et anti-américanisme, (Presses de l’Université Laval, Québec 2010).

ChalouxA., Fédéralisme relations transfrontalières et changements climatiques: Le cas nord-américain de la CGNA-PMEC, (Éditions Universitaires Européennes, Sarrebruck 2012).

ChalouxA.PaquinS., '“Green Paradiplomacy in North America: Successes and Limits of the NEG-ECP”', in H. Bruyninckx, S. Happaerts and K. Van den Brande (eds), Sustainable Development and Subnational Governments. Policy Making and Multi-Level Interactions, (Palgrave Macmillan, New York 2012).

ChalouxA.SéguinH., '“États fédérés et mise en oeuvre de traités climatiques internationaux: le cas du Québec”' (2012) 41(3) Revue de droit de l’Université de Sherbrooke: 607-632.

ContehC., '“Policy implementation in Multilevel Environments: Economic Development in Northern Ontario”' (2011) 54(1) Canadian Public Administration: 121-142.

D. Criekemans (ed), Regional Sub-State Diplomacy Today, (Martinus Nijhoff, Leiden 2010).

DeLeonP.DeLeonL., '“What Ever Happened to Policy Implementation? An Alternative Approach”' (2002) 12(4) Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory: 467-492.

DoranK. L., '“U.S. Sub-Federal Climate Initiatives: an Irrational Means to a rational End?”' (2006) 26 Virginia Environmental Law Journal: 181-217.

EatmonT. D., '“Paradiplomacy and Climate Change: American States as Actors in Global Climate Governance”' (2009) 1(2) Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research: 153-165.

EngelK. H., '“Whither Subnational Climate Change Initiatives in the Wake of Federal Climate Legislation?”' (2009) 39(3) Publius: 1-23.

ÉquiterreSuzukiF. D., '“Projet de loi 42 Loi modifiant la Loi sur la qualité de l’environnement et d’autres dispositions législatives en matière de changements climatiques”' Mémoire présenté par Équiterre et la Fondation David Suzuki à la Commission des transports et de l’environnement de l’Assemblée nationale du Québec, , Québec.

fccq, Consultation publique sur les orientations gouvernementales et les enjeux en matière de changements climatiques, (Montréal 2012).

GaronF.DufourP., '“Comprendre la mise en oeuvre différenciée d’une politique publique: Le cas d’une politique de gouvernance au Québec”' (2010) 43(3) Revue canadienne de science politique: 607-631.

GavelDoug, '“COP21 Panel Focuses on Greenhouse-Gas Emission Reductions and Trade Issues”' (2015) Harvard Kennedy School at COP21, December Online at: http://www.hks.harvard.edu/news-events/news/articles/hpca-cop21-china-side-panel..

HamiltonG., '“Six U.S. states abandon carbon-trade partnership”' (2011) The Vancouver Sun, November.

HamiltonG., '“Carbon credits could be a billion-dollar industry”' (2012) The Vancouver Sun, April.

HassenteufelP., Sociologie politique: l’action publique, (Armand Colin, Paris 2008).

HightC.Silva-ChávezG., Du changement dans l’air: les bases du futur marché américain du carbone, (Paris 2008).

HowlettM.RameshM.PerlA., Studying Public Policy. Policy Cycles & Policy Subsystems, (Oxford University Press, Toronto 2009).

KahnD., '“California Delays Cap-And-Trade Auctions, Citing Potential Gaming”' (2011) The New York Times, June Online at: http://www.nytimes.com/cwire/2011/2006/2030/2030climatewire-california-delays-cap-and-trade-auctions-cit-96440.html..

KarkkainenB. C., '“The Great Lakes and International Environmental Law: Time for Something Completely Different?”' (2008) 54 The Waine Law Review: 1571-1590.

KlinskyS., 'Bottom-Up Lessons Emerging from the Western Climate Initiative’s Development Challenges' (2013) 13(2) Climate Policy: 143-169.

LachapelleE.BorickC. P.RabeB., '“Public Attitudes toward Climate Science and Climate Policy in Federal Systems: Canada and the United States Compared”' (2012) 29(3) Review of Policy Research: 334-357.

LipskyM., Street-level Bureaucracy, (Russell Sage Foundation, New York 1980).

MatlandR. E., '“Synthesizing the Implementation Literature: The Ambiguity-Conflict Model of Policy Implementation”' (1995) 5(2) Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory: 145-174.

MercureP., '“Marché du carbone: Québec inc. souffle le chaud et le froid”' (2011) La Presse July 6 2011. Online at: http://affaires.lapresse.ca/economie/quebec/201107/201106/201101-4415561-marche-du-carbone-quebec-inc-souffle-le-chaud-et-le-froid.php..

MercureP., '“Marché du carbone: la Californie et le Québec enfin liés”' (2013) La Presse, April.

New York, '“Governor Cuomo, Joined by Vice President Gore, Announces New Actions to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Lead Nation on Climate Change”: News Release' (2015) , October Online at: https://www.governor.ny.gov/news/governor-cuomo-joined-vice-president-gore-announces-new-actions-reduce-greenhouse-gas-emissions..

Ontario, '“Cap and Trade System to Limit Greenhouse Gas Pollution in Ontario”' (2015a) News Release April 13. Online at: https://news.ontario.ca/opo/en/2015/04/cap-and-trade-system-to-limit-greenhouse-gas-pollution-in-ontario.html..

Ontario, '“Ontario, Québec and Manitoba Form a Dynamic Alliance to Fight Climate Change”' (2015b) News Release December 7. Online at: https://news.ontario.ca/opo/en/2015/12/ontario-quebec-and-manitoba-form-a-dynamic-alliance-to-fight-climate-change.html..

O’TooleL. J., '“Research on Policy Implementation: Assessment and Prospects”' (2000) 10(2) Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory: 263-288.

PalL. A., Beyond Policy Analysis, (Nelson Thompson Learning, Scarborough 2001).

Québec, (2009) Loi modifiant la Loi sur la qualité de l’environnement et d’autres dispositions législatives en matière de changements climatiques.

Québec, Québec donne le feu vert au marché du carbone: Press Release, (Québec 2012a).

Québec, Regulation Respecting a Cap-and-Trade System for Greenhouse Gas Emission Allowances, (Québec 2012b).

Québec, 'Ministère du Développement durable, de l’Environnement et de la Lutte aux changements climatiques' (2016a) Marché du carbone couverture des émissions Online at: http://www.mddelcc.gouv.qc.ca/changements/carbone/Couverture.htm..

RabeB., '“Climate Change Policy and Regulatory Federalism: The Divergent Paths of Canadian Provinces and American States in Greenhouse Gas Reduction”', in Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, (Washington 2005).

RooseveltM., '“Proposition 23: Backers were outspent, out-organized”' (2010) Los Angeles Times, November.

SabatierP. A., '“From Policy Implementation to Policy Change: A Personal Odyssey”', in Å. Gornitzka, M. Kogan and A. Amaral (eds), Reform and Change in Higher Education: Analysing Policy Implementation, (Springer, Berlin 2005).

SaetrenH., '“Facts and Myths about Research on Public Policy Implementation: Out-of-Fashion, Allegedly Dead, but Still Very Much Alive and Relevant”' (2005) 33(4) The Policy Studies Journal: 559-582.

H. Selin and S. D. Vandeveer (eds), Changing Climates in North American Politics. Institutions Policymaking and Multilevel Governance, (The MIT Press, Cambridge 2009).

SzaboM., '“Four us states have expressed interest in joining wci, says Quebec’s Heurtel”' (2015) Carbon Pulse Online at: http://carbon-pulse.com/12794/..

S. G. Tomblin and C. S. Colgan (eds), Regionalism in a Global Society: Persistence and Change in Atlantic Canada and New England, (Broadview Press, Peterborough 2004).

TétraultMcCarthy, Vaillancourt, (2011) Un marché de carbone réglementé aux portes du Québec! Online at: http://www.mccarthy.ca/fr/article_detail.aspx?id=5523..

VannijnattenD. L., '“Canadian-American Environmental Relations: Interoperablity and Politics”' (2004) The American Review of Canadian Studies: 649-664.

VannijnattenD. L., '“Towards Cross-Border Environmental Policy Spaces in North America: Province-State Linkages on the Canada-U.S. Border”' (2006) 3(1) AmeriQuests.

wci, Statement of Regional Goal, (Western Climate Initiative, 2007).

wci, (2010) Design for the WCI Regional Program.

Figures

Index Card

Content Metrics

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 22 22 18
Full Text Views 14 14 14
PDF Downloads 6 6 6
EPUB Downloads 0 0 0